Learn More
Adaptive immunity depends on T-cell exit from the thymus and T and B cells travelling between secondary lymphoid organs to survey for antigens. After activation in lymphoid organs, T cells must again return to circulation to reach sites of infection; however, the mechanisms regulating lymphoid organ exit are unknown. An immunosuppressant drug, FTY720,(More)
Interleukin 7 is essential for the survival of naive T lymphocytes. Despite its importance, its cellular source in the periphery remains poorly defined. Here we report a critical function for lymph node access in T cell homeostasis and identify T zone fibroblastic reticular cells in these organs as the main source of interleukin 7. In vitro, T zone(More)
Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), the best defined stromal cell subset within lymphoid follicles, play a critical role in presenting intact antigen to B lymphocytes. The discovery that many follicular stromal cells make B-lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC), a CXC chemokine that attracts CXCR5+ cells, provides a basis for understanding how motile B cells come(More)
Naive lymphocytes continually enter and exit lymphoid organs in a recirculation process that is essential for immune surveillance. During immune responses, the egress process can be shut down transiently. When this occurs locally it increases lymphocyte numbers in the responding lymphoid organ; when it occurs systemically it can lead to immunosuppression as(More)
Germinal centers (GCs) are important sites of antibody affinity maturation. In the classical model, the GC dark zone contains large centroblasts that are rapidly proliferating and undergoing somatic hypermutation of their antibody variable-region genes. Centroblasts give rise to smaller nonproliferating centrocytes in the light zone that compete for binding(More)
The mechanism of B cell-antigen encounter in lymphoid tissues is incompletely understood. It is also unclear how immune complexes are transported to follicular dendritic cells. Here, using real-time two-photon microscopy we noted rapid delivery of immune complexes through the lymph to macrophages in the lymph node subcapsular sinus. B cells captured immune(More)
The germinal center (GC) is an important site for the generation and selection of B cells bearing high-affinity antibodies, yet GC cell migration and interaction dynamics have not been directly observed. Using two-photon microscopy of mouse lymph nodes, we revealed that GC B cells are highly motile and extend long cell processes. They transited between GC(More)
Lymphocyte egress from the thymus and from peripheral lymphoid organs depends on sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor-1 and is thought to occur in response to circulatory S1P. However, the existence of an S1P gradient between lymphoid organs and blood or lymph has not been established. To further define egress requirements, we addressed why treatment with(More)
Lymphocytes require sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor-1 to exit lymphoid organs, but the source(s) of extracellular S1P and whether S1P directly promotes egress are unknown. By using mice in which the two kinases that generate S1P were conditionally ablated, we find that plasma S1P is mainly hematopoietic in origin, with erythrocytes a major(More)
Th cell access to primary B cell follicles is dependent on CXCR5. However, whether CXCR5 induction on T cells is sufficient in determining their follicular positioning has been unclear. In this study, we find that transgenic CXCR5 overexpression is not sufficient to promote follicular entry of naive T cells unless the counterbalancing influence of CCR7(More)