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Eurythermal ectotherms commonly thrive in environments that expose them to large variations in temperature on daily and seasonal bases. The roles played by alterations in gene expression in enabling eurytherms to adjust to these two temporally distinct patterns of thermal stress are poorly understood. We used cDNA microarray analysis to examine changes in(More)
Embryos of the annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus enter a state of developmental arrest termed diapause as part of their normal developmental program. Diapause can occur at two distinct developmental stages in this species, termed diapause II and III. When incubated at 25°C, most embryos enter diapause II, whereas a small percentage of 'escape'(More)
The annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus survives in ephemeral pond habitats by producing drought-tolerant diapausing embryos. These embryos probably experience oxygen deprivation as part of their normal developmental environment. We assessed the anoxia tolerance of A. limnaeus embryos across the duration of embryonic development. Embryos develop a(More)
Diapausing embryos of Austrofundulus limnaeus survive desiccating conditions by reducing evaporative water loss. Over 40% of diapause II embryos survive 113 days of exposure to 75.5% relative humidity. An early loss of water from the perivitelline space occurs during days 1-2, but thereafter, rates of water loss are reduced to near zero. No dehydration of(More)
Significant increases in heat tolerance (time of survival at 14°C) were observed for some, but not all, species of notothenioid fishes collected from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica (77°51′S) following acclimation to 4°C. The increase in thermal tolerance was rapid in Trematomus bernacchii, developing within 1–2 days of acclimation to 4°C. Long-term (6–8 weeks)(More)
Diapausing embryos of the annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus have the highest reported anoxia tolerance of any vertebrate and previous studies indicate modified mitochondrial physiology likely supports anoxic metabolism. Functional mitochondria isolated from diapausing and developing embryos of the annual killifish exhibited VO2, respiratory control(More)
Apoptosis is a process of pivotal importance for multi-cellular organisms and due to its implication in the development of cancer and degenerative disease it is intensively studied in humans and mammalian model systems. Invertebrate models of apoptosis have been well-studied, especially in C. elegans and D. melanogaster, but as these are evolutionarily(More)
Rates of protein synthesis are substantially depressed in diapause II embryos of Austrofundulus limnaeus. Inhibition of oxygen consumption and heat dissipation with cycloheximide indicates that 36% of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) turnover in prediapausing embryos (8 d postfertilization [dpf]) is caused by protein synthesis; the contribution of protein(More)
Annual killifish development is unique compared to other teleosts and is characterized by the dispersion and subsequent reaggregation of pre-embryonic blastomeres and the occurrence of embryonic diapause. Austrofundulus limnaeus is an excellent species to use for studies of development and embryonic diapause in annual killifish. A. limnaeus has a high(More)
Behavioral thermoregulation can allow ectotherms to buffer the effects of changes in environmental temperature, and thus an organism's preferred temperature is thought to be under strong selection. However, this contention has seldom been tested. We used common killifish Fundulus heteroclitus from high-latitude (northern) and low-latitude (southern)(More)