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Embryos of the annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus enter a state of developmental arrest termed diapause as part of their normal developmental program. Diapause can occur at two distinct developmental stages in this species, termed diapause II and III. When incubated at 25°C, most embryos enter diapause II, whereas a small percentage of 'escape'(More)
Diapausing embryos of Austrofundulus limnaeus survive desiccating conditions by reducing evaporative water loss. Over 40% of diapause II embryos survive 113 days of exposure to 75.5% relative humidity. An early loss of water from the perivitelline space occurs during days 1-2, but thereafter, rates of water loss are reduced to near zero. No dehydration of(More)
The cellular signaling mechanisms and morphogenic movements involved in axis formation and gastrulation are well conserved between vertebrates. In nearly all described fish, gastrulation and the initial patterning of the embryonic axis occur concurrently with epiboly. However, annual killifish may be an exception to this norm. Annual killifish inhabit(More)
Embryos of the annual killifish Austrofunduluslimnaeus have unequalled ability among vertebrates to survive long-term anoxia. Surprisingly, these embryos can survive for months in anoxia despite a large-scale decrease in ATP levels during the initial hours of anoxic exposure. These conditions are known to trigger apoptotic cell death in mammalian cells as a(More)
A previous phylogenetic analysis among 15 taxa of the teleost fish Fundulus suggested that there should be thermal-adaptive differences in heart metabolism among populations. To test this hypothesis, the rate of oxygen consumption and the activities of all 11 glycolytic enzymes were measured in isolated heart ventricle from two populations of Fundulus(More)
Evolution has provided a number of animal species with extraordinary phenotypes. Several of these phenotypes allow species to survive and thrive in environmental conditions that mimic disease states in humans. The study of evolved mechanisms responsible for these phenotypes may provide insights into the basis of human disease and guide the design of new(More)
Austrofundulus limnaeus thrive in ephemeral ponds that may experience temperatures spanning a range of over 20 degrees C on a daily basis. We hypothesized that A. limnaeus may have mechanisms, either behavioral or physiological, that allow them to support successful reproduction in this environment. To evaluate this hypothesis, we exposed male and female(More)
Embryos of the annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus can enter into dormancy associated with diapause and anoxia-induced quiescence. Dormant embryos are composed primarily of cells arrested in the G1/G0 phase of the cell cycle based on flow cytometry analysis of DNA content. In fact, most cells in developing embryos contain only a diploid complement of(More)
Embryos of Austrofundulus limnaeus are exceptional in their ability to tolerate prolonged bouts of complete anoxia. Hypoxia and anoxia are a normal part of their developmental environment. Here, we exposed embryos to a range of PO2 levels at two different temperatures (25 and 30 °C) to study the combined effects of reduced oxygen and increased temperature(More)
Life cycle delays are beneficial for opportunistic species encountering suboptimal environments. Many animals display a programmed arrest of development (diapause) at some stage(s) of their development, and the diapause state may or may not be associated with some degree of metabolic depression. In this review, we will evaluate current advancements in our(More)