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A spoken dialog system, while communicating with a user, must keep track of what the user wants from the system at each step. This process, termed dialog state tracking, is essential for a successful dialog system as it directly informs the system's actions. The first Dialog State Tracking Challenge allowed for evaluation of different dialog state tracking(More)
In a spoken dialog system, determining which action a machine should take in a given situation is a difficult problem because automatic speech recognition is unreliable and hence the state of the conversation can never be known with certainty. Much of the research in spoken dialog systems centres on mitigating this uncertainty and recent work has focussed(More)
In a spoken dialog system, dialog state tracking deduces information about the user's goal as the dialog progresses, synthesizing evidence such as dialog acts over multiple turns with external data sources. Recent approaches have been shown to overcome ASR and SLU errors in some applications. However, there are currently no common testbeds or evaluation(More)
In spoken dialog systems, dialog state tracking refers to the task of correctly inferring the user's goal at a given turn, given all of the dialog history up to that turn. This task is challenging because of speech recognition and language understanding errors, yet good dialog state tracking is crucial to the performance of spoken dialog systems. This paper(More)
Reinforcement learning (RL) is a promising technique for creating a dialog manager. RL accepts features of the current dialog state and seeks to find the best action given those features. Although it is often easy to posit a large set of potentially useful features, in practice, it is difficult to find the subset which is large enough to contain useful(More)
Deep learning is becoming a mainstream technology for speech recognition at industrial scale. In this paper, we provide an overview of the work by Microsoft speech researchers since 2009 in this area, focusing on more recent advances which shed light to the basic capabilities and limitations of the current deep learning technology. We organize this overview(More)
For spoken dialog systems, tracking a distribution over multiple dialog states has been shown to add robustness to speech recognition errors. To retain tractability, past work has suggested tracking dialog states in groups called partitions. While promising, current techniques are limited to incorporating a small number of ASR N-Best hypotheses. This paper(More)
Whereas traditional dialog systems operate on the top ASR hypothesis, statistical dialog systems claim to be more robust to ASR errors by maintaining a distribution over multiple hidden dialog states. Recently, these techniques have been deployed publicly for the first time, making empirical measurements possible. In this paper, we analyze two of these(More)
A total of 101 patients (mean age 64.9 years) underwent surgical correction of postinfarction ventricular septal defect at this institution over a 15-year period (1973 to 1988). The overall early mortality rate was 20.8%, although the most recent experience with 36 patients (January 1987 to October 1988) has seen this decline to 11.1%. Factors found to(More)