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BACKGROUND A skeletal muscle fiber consists of many successive "territories," each controlled by the nucleus residing in that territory. Because nuclei appear to control a specific amount of territory (nuclear domain), nuclei must be added to accommodate an increase in fiber size. Because growth and hypertrophy require the addition of nuclei to fibers, it(More)
The limb and trunk muscles of adult rats express four myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms, one slow (MHCI) and three fast (MHCIIa, MHCIId, and MHCIIb). The distribution of these isoforms correlates with fiber types delineated using myofibrillar actomyosin adenosine triphosphatase (mATPase) histochemistry. For example, type I fibers express MHCI and fiber(More)
BACKGROUND Programmed necrosis (necroptosis) plays an important role in development, tissue homeostasis, and disease pathogenesis. The molecular mechanisms that regulate necroptosis in the heart and its physiological relevance in myocardial remodeling and heart failure remain largely unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS Here, we identified an obligate function(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Wolfram syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by childhood diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy and severe neurodegeneration, resulting in premature death. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms responsible for the phenotype of carbohydrate intolerance and loss of pancreatic beta cells in this disorder. (More)
Background—Nearly universal cardiomyopathy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) contributes to heart failure and death. Because DMD patients show myocardial fibrosis well before functional impairment, we postulated that earlier treatment using drugs with antifibrotic effect may be beneficial. Methods and Results—Three groups of 10 utrn ϩ/Ϫ ;mdx, or " het "(More)
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited disease that causes striated muscle weakness. Recently, we showed therapeutic effects of the combination of lisinopril (L), an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, and spironolactone (S), an aldosterone antagonist, in mice lacking dystrophin and haploinsufficient for utrophin (utrn(+/-);mdx, het(More)
Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by loss of lower motor neurons. SMA is caused by deletion or mutation of the Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1) gene and retention of the SMN2 gene. The loss of SMN1 results in reduced levels of the SMN protein. SMN levels appear to be particularly important in motor neurons; however(More)
To determine the repeatability of insulin sensitivity measurements generated by the minimal model, we subjected 11 normal men to 3 frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests (FSIGTs) over the course of 12 days under conditions of fixed diet and limited physical activity. FSIGTs were analyzed by the minimal model using a full, 30-sample data set,(More)
The primary purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of microgravity on muscle fibers of the predominantly fast-twitch muscles in the rat. Cross sectional area and myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition were assessed in order to establish the acute effects of microgravity associated with spaceflight. The extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and(More)
Ancient components of the ribosome, inferred from a consensus of previous work, were constructed in silico, in vitro and in vivo. The resulting model of the ancestral ribosome presented here incorporates ∼20% of the extant 23S rRNA and fragments of five ribosomal proteins. We test hypotheses that ancestral rRNA can: (i) assume canonical 23S rRNA-like(More)