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BACKGROUND A skeletal muscle fiber consists of many successive "territories," each controlled by the nucleus residing in that territory. Because nuclei appear to control a specific amount of territory (nuclear domain), nuclei must be added to accommodate an increase in fiber size. Because growth and hypertrophy require the addition of nuclei to fibers, it(More)
The limb and trunk muscles of adult rats express four myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms, one slow (MHCI) and three fast (MHCIIa, MHCIId, and MHCIIb). The distribution of these isoforms correlates with fiber types delineated using myofibrillar actomyosin adenosine triphosphatase (mATPase) histochemistry. For example, type I fibers express MHCI and fiber(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Wolfram syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by childhood diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy and severe neurodegeneration, resulting in premature death. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms responsible for the phenotype of carbohydrate intolerance and loss of pancreatic beta cells in this disorder. (More)
Background—Nearly universal cardiomyopathy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) contributes to heart failure and death. Because DMD patients show myocardial fibrosis well before functional impairment, we postulated that earlier treatment using drugs with antifibrotic effect may be beneficial. Methods and Results—Three groups of 10 utrn ϩ/Ϫ ;mdx, or " het "(More)
The body composition (water, fat, protein and ash) of male and female transgenic mice which had a sheep metallothionein 1a-sheep growth hormone fusion gene and their non-transgenic controls was determined at intervals from birth to 21 days of age (weaning) in 66 mice of each group, and in an additional 64 mice over the period 25 to 98 days of age. Overall(More)
Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by loss of lower motor neurons. SMA is caused by deletion or mutation of the Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1) gene and retention of the SMN2 gene. The loss of SMN1 results in reduced levels of the SMN protein. SMN levels appear to be particularly important in motor neurons; however(More)
The effects of two different duration space-flights on the extent of atrophy, fiber type composition, and myosin heavy chain (MHC) content of rat soleus muscles were compared. Adult male Fisher rats (n=12) were aboard flight STS-57 and exposed to 10 days of microgravity and adult ovariectomized female Spraque-Dawley rats (n=12) were aboard flight STS-62 for(More)
To determine the repeatability of insulin sensitivity measurements generated by the minimal model, we subjected 11 normal men to 3 frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests (FSIGTs) over the course of 12 days under conditions of fixed diet and limited physical activity. FSIGTs were analyzed by the minimal model using a full, 30-sample data set,(More)
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited disease that causes striated muscle weakness. Recently, we showed therapeutic effects of the combination of lisinopril (L), an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, and spironolactone (S), an aldosterone antagonist, in mice lacking dystrophin and haploinsufficient for utrophin (utrn(+/-);mdx, het(More)
The primary purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of microgravity on muscle fibers of the predominantly fast-twitch muscles in the rat. Cross sectional area and myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition were assessed in order to establish the acute effects of microgravity associated with spaceflight. The extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and(More)