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An increasing number of emerging Internet applications require better than best effort quality of service (QoS) that is offered by the current Internet. Applications such as voice over IP (VoIP), video on demand (VoD) and e-commerce applications need end-to-end QoS guarantees defined in terms of throughput, delay and loss rate E. Kumsierek et al., (2002).(More)
DSR routing protocol was used to evaluate the MACA and EMACA performance. Results show that the EMACA simulation performs well as compared to MACA in sense of Throughput, Total Packet Receive, Drop Packet Ratio and Average Jitter under varying conditions of Pause Time. In this paper we will try to change route selection mechanism proactively. We will also(More)
In recent years a flurry of research activity has produced many suggested schemes for clustering wireless sensor networks, but no hard numbers for real-world implementations. This lack of guidance for developers makes it very difficult to effectively and confidently build working networks. This paper partially addresses these concerns by deriving minimal(More)
In the original OSI networking model, data are kept strictly within a given layer because strict boundaries between layers are enforced. Cross layer optimization removes such strict boundaries to allow communication between layers by permitting one layer to access the data of another layer to exchange information and enable interaction. In this paper, the(More)
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