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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) circulate in the bloodstream in a highly stable, extracellular form and are being developed as blood-based biomarkers for cancer and other diseases. However, the mechanism underlying their remarkable stability in the RNase-rich environment of blood is not well understood. The current model in the literature posits that circulating miRNAs(More)
Circulating, cell-free microRNAs (miRNAs) hold great promise as a new class of cancer biomarkers due to their surprisingly high stability in plasma, association with disease states, and ease of sensitive measurement. Yet little is known about the origin of circulating miRNAs in either healthy or sick people or what factors influence levels of circulating(More)
Although the small DNA tumor virus SV40 (simian virus 40) fails to replicate in human cells, understanding how SV40 transforms human and murine cells has and continues to provide important insights into cancer initiation and maintenance. The early region of SV40 encodes two oncoproteins: the large T (LT) and small t (ST) antigens. SV40 LT contributes to(More)
The introduction of SV40 small t antigen or the suppression of PP2A B56gamma subunit expression contributes to the experimental transformation of human cells. To investigate the role of cancer-associated PP2A Aalpha subunit mutants in transformation, we introduced several PP2A Aalpha mutants into immortalized but nontumorigenic human cells. These PP2A(More)
MITF, TFE3, TFEB, and TFEC comprise a transcription factor family (MiT) that regulates key developmental pathways in several cell lineages. Like MYC, MiT members are basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper transcription factors. MiT members share virtually perfect homology in their DNA binding domains and bind a common DNA motif. Translocations of TFE3 occur(More)
Exosomes have been proposed as vehicles for microRNA (miRNA) -based intercellular communication and a source of miRNA biomarkers in bodily fluids. Although exosome preparations contain miRNAs, a quantitative analysis of their abundance and stoichiometry is lacking. In the course of studying cancer-associated extracellular miRNAs in patient blood samples, we(More)
DNA-responsive checkpoints prevent cell-cycle progression following DNA damage or replication inhibition. The mitotic activator Cdc25 is suppressed by checkpoints through inhibitory phosphorylation at Ser287 (Xenopus numbering) and docking of 14-3-3. Ser287 phosphorylation is a major locus of G2/M checkpoint control, although several checkpoint-independent(More)
The human retrovirus XMRV (xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus) is associated with prostate cancer, most frequently in humans with a defect in the antiviral defense protein RNase L, suggesting a role for XMRV in prostate carcinogenesis. However, XMRV has not been found in prostate carcinoma cells. Here we show that 22Rv1 prostate carcinoma cells(More)
The SV40 small t antigen (ST) is a potent oncoprotein that perturbs the function of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). ST directly interacts with the PP2A scaffolding A subunit and alters PP2A activity by displacing regulatory B subunits from the A subunit. We have determined the crystal structure of full-length ST in complex with PP2A A subunit at 3.1 A(More)
Although microRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression, the transcriptional regulation of miRNAs themselves is not well understood. We employed an integrative computational pipeline to dissect the transcription factors (TFs) responsible for altered miRNA expression in ovarian carcinoma. Using experimental data and computational predictions(More)