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The ability of rats using their whiskers to perform fine tactile discrimination rivals that of humans using their fingertips. Rats must perform these discriminations rapidly and accurately while palpating the environment with their whiskers. This suggests that whisker-derived inputs produce a robust and reliable code, capable of capturing complex,(More)
Sensory inputs are relayed to the neocortex by "first-order" thalamic nuclei, the responses of which are determined by ascending inputs from peripheral receptors. In contrast, "higher-order" thalamic nuclei respond poorly to peripheral inputs, and their responses are thought to be determined by descending cortical inputs. We tested this hypothesis by(More)
The frontal eye field (FEF) participates in selecting the location of behaviorally relevant stimuli for guiding attention and eye movements. We simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFPs) and spiking activity in the FEF of monkeys performing memory-guided saccade and covert visual search tasks. We compared visual latencies and the time course of(More)
We have previously shown that the GABAergic nucleus zona incerta (ZI) suppresses vibrissae-evoked responses in the posterior medial (POm) thalamus of the rodent somatosensory system. We proposed that this inhibitory incerto-thalamic pathway regulates POm responses during different behavioral states. Here we tested the hypothesis that the cholinergic(More)
In all sensory systems, information is processed along several parallel streams. In the vibrissa-to-barrel cortex system, these include the lemniscal system and the lesser-known paralemniscal system. The posterior medial nucleus (POm) is the thalamic structure associated with the latter pathway. Previous studies suggested that POm response latencies are(More)
We previously showed that the GABAergic nucleus zona incerta (ZI) suppresses vibrissae-evoked responses in the posterior medial (POm) thalamus of the rodent somatosensory system. We proposed that this inhibitory incertothalamic pathway regulates POm responses during different behavioral states. Here we tested the hypothesis that this pathway is modulated by(More)
Neuronal activity in the frontal eye field (FEF) identifies locations of behaviorally important objects for guiding attention and eye movements. We recorded neural activity in the FEF of monkeys trained to manually turn a lever towards the location of a pop-out target of a visual search array without shifting gaze. We examined whether the reliability of the(More)
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has been described as signaling outcome expectancies or value. Evidence for the latter comes from the studies showing that neural signals in the OFC correlate with value across features. Yet features can co-vary with value, and individual units may participate in multiple ensembles coding different features. Here we used(More)
BACKGROUND Neural activity in basolateral amygdala has recently been shown to reflect surprise or attention as predicted by the Pearce-Kaye-Hall model (PKH)--an influential model of associative learning. Theoretically, a PKH attentional signal originates in prediction errors of the kind associated with phasic firing of dopamine neurons. This requirement for(More)