Jason C. Steel

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PURPOSE Interleukin 15 (IL-15) is a promising cytokine for immunotherapy of cancer due to its ability to stimulate the immunity of natural killer, B, and T cells. Its effectiveness, however, may be limited by inhibitory checkpoints and pathways that can attenuate immune responses. Finding strategies to abrogate these negative regulators and enhance the(More)
Cancer initiating cells (CICs) represent a unique cell population essential for the maintenance and growth of tumors. Most in vivo studies of CICs utilize human tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice. These models provide limited information on the interaction of CICs with the host immune system and are of limited value in assessing therapies targeting(More)
ErbB-2 (HER-2/neu) is a transforming oncogene expressed by a substantial fraction of breast cancers, and monoclonal antibody therapy directed toward this antigen is an established treatment modality. However, not all tumors respond, and with a monoclonal antibody directed to a single epitope, there is always the risk of tumor escape. Furthermore, passive(More)
Lung cancer is a major public health problem causing more deaths than any other cancer. A better understanding of the biology of this disease and improvements in treatment are greatly needed. Increasing evidence supports the concept that a rare and specialized population of cancer cells, so-called cancer-initiating cells with stem cell-like characteristics,(More)
A number of antitumor vaccines have recently shown promise in upregulating immune responses against tumor antigens and improving patient survival. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of vaccination using interleukin (IL)-15-expressing tumor cells and also examine their ability to upregulate immune responses to tumor antigens. We demonstrated that(More)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains one of the most common and lethal malignancies worldwide despite the development of various therapeutic strategies. A better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for HCC initiation and progression is essential for the development of more effective therapies. The cancer stem cell (CSC) model has provided new(More)
The structured lymphoid tissues are considered the only inductive sites where primary T-cell immune responses occur. The naïve T cells in structured lymphoid tissues, once being primed by antigen-bearing dendritic cells, differentiate into memory T cells and traffic back to the mucosal sites through the bloodstream. Contrary to this belief, here we show(More)
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