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[1] Simulations of frigid Neoproterozoic climates have not considered the tendency of thick layers of floating marine ice to deform and spread laterally. We have constructed a simple model of the production and flow of marine ice on a planetary scale, and determined ice thickness and flow in two situations: when the ocean is globally ice-covered (''hard(More)
The authors explore the use of the ''neutral vectors'' of a linearized version of a global quasigeostrophic atmospheric model with realistic mean flow in the study of the nonlinear model's low-frequency variability. Neutral vectors are the (right) singular vectors of the linearized model's tendency matrix that have the smallest eigenvalues; they are also(More)
[1] Hydrothermal plumes may be responsible for transmitting radiogenic or tidally generated heat from Europa's rocky interior through a liquid ocean to the base of its ice shell. This process has been implicated in the formation of chaos regions and lenticulae by melting or exciting convection in the ice layer. In contrast to earlier work, we argue that(More)
OBJECTIVE This study examined the performance correlation the American Academy of Neurology Resident Inservice Training Examination (RITE) and Part I of the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) examination. METHODS Candidates who took the RITE in the last year of training were tracked and their subsequent performance on the ABPN Part I(More)
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