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This article summarizes the new 2011 report on dietary requirements for calcium and vitamin D from the Institute of Medicine (IOM). An IOM Committee charged with determining the population needs for these nutrients in North America conducted a comprehensive review of the evidence for both skeletal and extraskeletal outcomes. The Committee concluded that(More)
BACKGROUND Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-[OH]D) is considered the best biomarker of clinical vitamin D status. OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of increasing oral doses of vitamin D(3) on serum 25-(OH)D and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in postmenopausal white women with vitamin D insufficiency (defined as a 25-[OH]D level ≤50 nmol/L) in the(More)
Tibolone, a novel compound with tissue-specific effects, has been found to have antiresorptive properties in bone. To confirm the efficacy of tibolone and determine its minimum effective dose for prevention of bone loss in early postmenopausal women, two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding studies were performed. Seven hundred seventy(More)
In the beginning, that is from the 1960's, when a link between menopause and osteoporosis was first identified; estrogen treatment was the standard for preventing bone loss, however there was no fracture data, even though it was thought to be effective. This continued until the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study in 2001 that published data on 6 years of(More)
Morphometric measurements of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae were carried out on spinal radiographs of 150 normal women. A normal range was established for each individual vertebra. There was no change in the anterior height of the thoracic or lumbar vertebrae with age but there was a small significant decrease in the posterior height of the lumbar(More)
Estrogen deficiency and declining calcium absorption due to reduced calcitriol levels or intestinal resistance to calcitriol, are important factors in the pathogenesis of age-related bone loss. The main objective of this study was to examine the effect of estrogen and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D therapy given individually or in combination on bone loss in(More)
  • J C Gallagher
  • 2004
There is an increase in the incidence of falls with aging and about 10% of falls lead to fractures. Nearly all hip fractures are due to falls and hip fractures are the most severe of the osteoporotic fractures because they lead to a 20% mortality rate and a loss of independent living in 50% of cases. Although there are multiple factors associated with(More)
OBJECTIVES To ascertain the risk factors for falls, stumbles and recurrent falls in a cohort of elderly people with mean age of 76.7-/+6.1 years. METHODS 137 community dwelling elderly living independently or in assisted living institutions participated in the study. Each subject was assessed by history, physical examination and physical performance tests(More)
Obese people are known to have lower serum 25OHD levels compared to non-obese people. It is not known whether it is due to storage of vitamin D in fat, inadequate input from sunlight, diet or other unknown factors. We examined the relationship at study baseline of serum 25OHD, PTH, 1,25(OH)2D with body composition measurements using dual energy X-ray(More)