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Existing methods for detection of food-borne pathogens and their toxins are frequently time-consuming, require specialized equipment, and involve lengthy culture procedures and/or animal testing and are thus unsuitable for a rapid response to an emergency public health situation. A series of simple and rapid affinity immunochromatography column (AICC)(More)
Vegetation transect data from three locations were analyzed to determine if multiple scales of pattern could be detected. The sites included a semiarid grassland in New Mexico, a series of calcareous openings in a deciduous forest in Tennessee, and a shrub-steppe system in Washington. The data were explored with four statistical techniques. A scale of(More)
Clostridium botulinum is a dangerous pathogen that forms the highly potent botulinum toxin, which when ingested causes a deadly neuroparalytic disease. The closely related Clostridium sporogenes is occasionally pathogenic, frequently associated with food spoilage and regarded as the non-toxigenic equivalent of Group I C. botulinum. Both species form highly(More)
A monolithic low noise high linearity LNA/mixer circuit for 2.5 GHz applications has been fabricated in IBM 47 GHz SiGe production process. The measured performance is 8 dBm input IP3, 1.6 dB NF and 12 dB Gain for a low noise amplifier (LNA), and 2.5 dBm input IP3, 7.5 dB NF and 14 dB gain for a downconversion mixer with a total current consumption of 26 mA(More)
The Gram-positive spore-forming anaerobe Clostridium sporogenes is a significant cause of food spoilage, and it is also used as a surrogate for C. botulinum spores for testing the efficacy of commercial sterilization. C. sporogenes spores have also been proposed as a vector to deliver drugs to tumor cells for cancer treatments. Such an application of C.(More)
Clostridium botulinum is a highly dangerous pathogen that forms very resistant endospores that are ubiquitous in the environment, and which, under favorable conditions germinate to produce vegetative cells that multiply and form the exceptionally potent botulinum neurotoxin. To improve the control of botulinum neurotoxin-forming clostridia, it is important(More)
Clostridium sporogenes forms highly heat resistant endospores, enabling this bacterium to survive adverse conditions. Subsequently, spores may germinate, giving rise to vegetative cells that multiply and lead to food spoilage. Electron microscopy was used to visualise changes in spore structures during germination, emergence and outgrowth. C. sporogenes(More)
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