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GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) is the main inhibitory transmitter in the adult brain, and it exerts its fast hyperpolarizing effect through activation of anion (predominantly Cl-)-permeant GABA(A) receptors. However, during early neuronal development, GABA(A)-receptor-mediated responses are often depolarizing, which may be a key factor in the control of(More)
Immunocytochemical visualization of the neuron-specific K+/Cl- cotransporter, KCC2, at the cellular and subcellular level revealed an area- and layer-specific diffuse labelling, and a discrete staining outlining the somata and dendrites of some interneurons in all areas of the rat hippocampus. KCC2 was highly expressed in parvalbumin-containing(More)
To assess the role of glycogenolysis in mediating exercise-induced increases in muscle water as monitored by changes in muscle proton relaxation times on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cross-sectional area (CSA), five patients with myophosphorylase deficiency (MPD) were compared with seven controls. Absolute and relative work loads were matched during(More)
A method for determining flow by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging is described. A conventional spin-echo imaging sequence is employed with the addition of balanced gradient pulses on either side of the pi radiofrequency pulse. Flow velocities in the direction orthogonal to the image plane are determined by the phase shifts in the NMR image.(More)
Sports-related muscle pain is frequent in both trained and untrained persons; however, its severity and significance may be difficult to assess clinically. The authors used magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to evaluate acute strains and delayed-onset muscle soreness in sedentary subjects and postmarathon myalgia in trained runners. MR imaging documented the(More)
The results of initial clinical nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in eight normal and 52 children with a wide variety of neurologic diseases were reviewed. The high level of gray-white matter contrast available with inversion-recovery sequences provided a basis for visualizing normal myelination as well as delays or deficits in this process.(More)
BACKGROUND The noninvasive measurement of absolute epicardial coronary arterial flow and flow reserve would be useful in the evaluation of patients with coronary circulatory disorders. Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) has been used to measure coronary arterial flow in animals, but its accuracy in humans is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS(More)
Initial clinical experience with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen using short TI inversion-recovery (STIR) pulse sequences is described and compared with X-ray CT in a variety of abdominal disease. The extent of abnormality shown with MRI was greater than that with CT in 21 of 30 cases and equal in 9 cases. Lesion contrast was greater with(More)
The theoretical basis for the use of paramagnetic agents to enhance proton relaxation is described. Factors of importance in the design of contrast agents are considered. Measurements of changes in T1 and T2 in vitro due to Gd3+-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) are used to predict changes in the intensity of transverse magnetisation seen with(More)