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The impact of ostensibly aversive social stresses on triggering, amplifying and prolonging intensely rewarding drug taking is an apparent contradiction in need of resolution. Social stress encompasses various types of significant life events ranging from maternal separation stress, brief episodes of social confrontations in adolescence and adulthood, to(More)
RATIONALE Behavioral sensitization has been proposed as a process that is important in compulsive drug use and in psychotic disorders. OBJECTIVE The present experiments examine the relationship between behavioral sensitization, induced by either social defeat or amphetamine, and intravenous cocaine self-administration in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS Male(More)
Stressful experiences can affect hippocampal structure and function and can suppress new cell birth in the adult hippocampus in several species. Here we examine how repeated intermittent social defeat affects cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus (DG) in mice. Adult male CFW mice were subjected to 10 daily social defeat episodes, 3 defeat episodes within(More)
Stress can trigger, intensify, and prolong drug consumption, as well as reinstate previously extinguished drug-taking behavior by directly impacting a neural circuit often referred to as a reward pathways. Animal models of drug abuse have been used to understand these neural circuits mediating stress-induced drug intake and relapse through examination of(More)
RATIONALE Repeated administration of psychostimulants progressively augments the behavioral response to and increases self-administration behavior of these drugs. Experience of repeated intermittent social defeat stress episodes also leads to a sensitized locomotor response following psychostimulant challenge. Both metabotropic and ionotropic glutamate(More)
INTRODUCTION Dysregulation of GABAergic inhibition and glutamatergic excitation has been implicated in exaggerated anxiety. Mouse pups emit distress-like ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) when they are separated from their dam/siblings, and this behavior is reduced by benzodiazepines (BZs) which modulate GABAergic inhibition. The roles of glutamate receptors(More)
Intermittent social defeat stress can induce neuroadaptations that promote compulsive drug taking. Within the mesocorticolimbic circuit, repeated cocaine administration activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). The present experiments examine whether changes in ERK phosphorylation are necessary for the behavioral and neural adaptations that(More)
In this review, we examine how experiences in social confrontations alter gene expression in mesocorticolimbic cells. The focus is on the target of attack and threat due to the prominent role of social defeat stress in the study of coping mechanisms and victimization. The initial operational definition of the socially defeated mouse by Ginsburg and Allee(More)
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