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CONTEXT Existing therapies for major depression have a lag of onset of action of several weeks, resulting in considerable morbidity. Exploring pharmacological strategies that have rapid onset of antidepressant effects within a few days and that are sustained would have an enormous impact on patient care. Converging lines of evidence suggest the role of the(More)
For a number of patients with bipolar disorder, current pharmacotherapy is generally insufficient. Despite adequate treatment, patients continue to have recurrent mood episodes, residual symptoms, functional impairment, psychosocial disability, and significant medical and psychiatric comorbidity. Drug development for bipolar disorder may occur through one(More)
BACKGROUND Functional neuroimaging studies of bipolar disorder (BD) performed in conjunction with antidepressant treatment trials generally require that patients remain on mood stabilizers to reduce the risk of inducing mania; yet, it is unknown whether the metabolic abnormalities evident in unmedicated BD depressives remain detectable in patients receiving(More)
BACKGROUND Paliperidone extended-release (ER) is approved for treatment of schizophrenia in adults but has not been evaluated in adolescents. METHODS In this 6-week, double-blind, parallel-group study, participants (n = 201) aged 12 to 17 years, with a Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score of 60 to 120 were randomly allocated (1:1:1:1)(More)
OBJECTIVE This study was designed to assess possible antidepressant effects of memantine, a selective N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist in humans. METHOD In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 32 subjects with major depression were randomly assigned to receive memantine (5-20 mg/day) (N=16) or placebo (N=16) for 8 weeks. Primary(More)
Several recent studies have shown that a single intravenous subanesthetic dose of ketamine, a NMDA receptor antagonist, exerts rapid antidepressant effects in patients with treatment refractory mood disorders and reduces suicidal ideation. Those insights have fueled tremendous excitement in the efforts to elucidate the mechanism underlying ketamine's(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of risperidone in treating irritability and related behaviors in children and adolescents with autistic disorders. METHODS In this 6 month (26 week) open-label extension (OLE) study, patients (5-17 years of age, who completed the previous fixed-dose, 6 week, double-blind(More)
BACKGROUND Preclinical and clinical evidence indicate that the glutamatergic system might play a role in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. This study was conducted to determine the efficacy and safety of riluzole, a glutamate-modulating agent, in bipolar depression. METHODS This was an 8-week add-on study of riluzole in combination with lithium in(More)
Clinical studies over the past decades have attempted to uncover the biological factors mediating the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) utilizing a variety of biochemical and neuroendocrine strategies. Indeed, assessments of cerebrospinal fluid chemistry, neuroendocrine responses to pharmacological challenge, and neuroreceptor and transporter binding(More)