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Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (PfDHFR-TS) is an important target of antimalarial drugs. The efficacy of this class of DHFR-inhibitor drugs is now compromised because of mutations that prevent drug binding yet retain enzyme activity. The crystal structures of PfDHFR-TS from the wild type (TM4/8.2) and the quadruple(More)
Malarial dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is the target of antifolate antimalarial drugs such as pyrimethamine and cycloguanil, the clinical efficacy of which have been compromised by resistance arising through mutations at various sites on the enzyme. Here, we describe the use of cocrystal structures with inhibitors and substrates, along with efficacy and(More)
Novel analogues of pyrimethamine (Pyr) and cycloguanil (Cyc) have been synthesized and tested as inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase carrying triple (N51I+C59R+S108N, C59R+S108N+I164L) and quadruple (N51I+C59R+S108N+I164L) mutations responsible for antifolate resistance. The inhibitors were designed to avoid steric clash of the p-Cl(More)
The reduced binding of pyrimethamine to Ser108Asn (S108N) mutants of parasite dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), which forms the basis of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to pyrimethamine, is largely due to steric constraint imposed by the bulky side chain of N108 on Cl of the 5-p-Cl-phenyl group. This and other S108 mutants with bulky side chains all(More)
Dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) from Plasmodium falciparum, a validated target for antifolate antimalarials, is a dimeric enzyme with interdomain interactions significantly mediated by the junction region as well as the Plasmodium-specific additional sequences (inserts) in the DHFR domain. The X-ray structures of both the wild-type(More)
The resistance to pyrimethamine (PYR) of Plasmodium falciparum arising from mutation at position 108 of dihydrofolate reductase (pfDHFR) from serine to asparagine (S108N) is due to steric interaction between the bulky side chain of N108 and Cl atom of the 5-p-Cl aryl group of PYR, which consequently resulted in the reduction in binding affinity between the(More)
The full-length pfdhfr-ts genes of the wild-type TM4/8.2 and the double mutant K1CB1 (C59R+S108N) from the genomic DNA of the corresponding Plasmodium falciparum parasite have been cloned into a modified pET(17b) plasmid and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. Conditions for the expression and purification of the P. falciparum dihydrofolate(More)
Dihydrofolate reductases (DHFRs) from Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and various species of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms have a conserved tryptophan (Trp) at position 48 in the active site. The role in catalysis and binding of inhibitors of the conserved Trp48 of PfDHFR has been analysed by site-specific mutagenesis, enzyme kinetics and use of a(More)
A simple method for screening combinatorial and other libraries of inhibitors of malarial (Plasmodium falciparum) dihydrofolate reductase (PfDHFR) has been developed, based on the affinities of the inhibitors with the enzyme. In the presence of limiting amounts of the enzyme, a number of inhibitors in the library were bound to extents reflecting the(More)
Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is a potential drug target for Trypanosoma brucei, a human parasite, which is the causative agent for African sleeping sickness. No drug is available against this target, since none of the classical antifolates such as pyrimethamine (PYR), cycloguanil, or trimethoprim are effective as selective inhibitors of T. brucei DHFR(More)