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Generalized linear mixed models provide a flexible framework for modeling a range of data, although with non-Gaussian response variables the likelihood cannot be obtained in closed form. Markov chain Monte Carlo methods solve this problem by sampling from a series of simpler conditional distributions that can be evaluated. The R package MCM-Cglmm,(More)
Related individuals often have similar phenotypes, but this similarity may be due to the effects of shared environments as much as to the effects of shared genes. We consider here alternative approaches to separating the relative contributions of these two sources to phenotypic covariances, comparing experimental approaches such as cross-fostering,(More)
Introduction These are (incomplete) course notes about generalised linear mixed models (GLMM). Special emphasis is placed on understanding the underlying structure of a GLMM in order to show that slight modifications of this structure can produce a wide range of models. These include familiar models like regression and ANOVA, but also models with(More)
Temporal variation in selection is a fundamental determinant of evolutionary outcomes. A recent paper presented a synthetic analysis of temporal variation in selection in natural populations. The authors concluded that there is substantial variation in the strength and direction of selection over time, but acknowledged that sampling error would result in(More)
Phenotypic differences between populations often correlate with climate variables, resulting from a combination of environment-induced plasticity and local adaptation. Species comprising populations that are genetically adapted to local climatic conditions should be more vulnerable to climate change than those comprising phenotypically plastic populations.(More)
Evolutionary theory is primarily concerned with genetic processes, yet empirical testing of this theory often involves data collected on phenotypes. To make this tenable, the implicit assumption is often made that phenotypic patterns are good predictors of genetic patterns; an assumption that coined the phenotypic gambit. Although this assumption has been(More)
Indirect and direct models of sexual selection make different predictions regarding the quantitative genetic relationships between sexual ornaments and fitness. Indirect models predict that ornaments should have a high heritability and that strong positive genetic covariance should exist between fitness and the ornament. Direct models, on the other hand,(More)
Facultative or "secondary" symbionts are common in eukaryotes, particularly insects. While not essential for host survival, they often provide significant fitness benefits. It has been hypothesized that secondary symbionts form a "horizontal gene pool" shuttling adaptive genes among host lineages in an analogous manner to plasmids and other mobile genetic(More)
Carotenoid-based colours are recognized as having an important signalling function, yet the nature of the mechanisms that maintain their honesty is not well understood. By combining a carotenoid-feeding experiment with a quantitative genetic experiment in a wild population of blue tits (Parus caeruleus), we were able to test predictions that differentiate(More)
Global warming has had numerous effects on populations of animals and plants, with many species in temperate regions experiencing environmental change at unprecedented rates. Populations with low potential for adaptive evolutionary change and plasticity will have little chance of persistence in the face of environmental change. Assessment of the potential(More)