Focusing hard x-ray free-electron laser radiation with extremely high fluence sets stringent demands on the x-ray optics. Any material placed in an intense x-ray beam is at risk of being damaged. Therefore, it is crucial to find the damage thresholds for focusing optics. In this paper we report experimental results of exposing tungsten and diamond… (More)
The centrosymmetric crystal structure of the novel semi-organic compound, 3C(3)H(5)N(2)S(+)·HSO(4) (-)·SO(4) (2-)·H(2)O, is based on chains of alternating anions and water mol-ecules (formed by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds). The chains are inter-connected with the 2-amino-1,3-thia-zolium cations via strong N-H⋯O and weak C-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions into a… (More)
In the title compound, C(3)H(5)N(2)S(+)·H(2)PO(4) (-), the dihydrogen phosphate anions form infinite chains along  via short O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The 2-amino-thia-zolium cations inter-connect these chains into a three-dimensional network by short linear or bifurcated N-H⋯O and weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds.
Large-scale plasma was created in molecular gases (CO, CO2, N2, H2O) and their mixtures by high-power laser-induced dielectric breakdown (LIDB). Compositions of the mixtures used are those suggested for the early earth's atmosphere of neutral and/or mildly reducing character. Time-integrated optical spectra emitted from the laser spark have been measured… (More)