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Matter with a high energy density (>10(5) joules per cm(3)) is prevalent throughout the Universe, being present in all types of stars and towards the centre of the giant planets; it is also relevant for inertial confinement fusion. Its thermodynamic and transport properties are challenging to measure, requiring the creation of sufficiently long-lived(More)
The soft x-ray materials science instrument is the second operational beamline at the linac coherent light source x-ray free electron laser. The instrument operates with a photon energy range of 480-2000 eV and features a grating monochromator as well as bendable refocusing mirrors. A broad range of experimental stations may be installed to study diverse(More)
We present a new technique for the characterization of non-Gaussian laser beams which cannot be described by an analytical formula. As a generalization of the beam spot area we apply and refine the definition of so called effective area (A(eff)) [1] in order to avoid using the full-width at half maximum (FWHM) parameter which is inappropriate for(More)
We present the x-ray optical design of the soft x-ray materials science instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source, consisting of a varied line-spaced grating monochromator and Kirkpatrick-Baez refocusing optics. Results from the commissioning of the monochromator are shown. A resolving power of 3000 was achieved, which is within a factor of two of the(More)
A linear accelerator based source of coherent radiation, FLASH (Free-electron LASer in Hamburg) provides ultra-intense femtosecond radiation pulses at wavelengths from the extreme ultraviolet (XUV; lambda<100nm) to the soft X-ray (SXR; lambda<30nm) spectral regions. 25-fs pulses of 32-nm FLASH radiation were used to determine the ablation parameters of PMMA(More)
We report the first observation of single-shot soft x-ray laser induced desorption occurring below the ablation threshold in a thin layer of poly (methyl methacrylate)--PMMA. Irradiated by the focused beam from the Free-electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH) at 21.7 nm, the samples have been investigated by atomic-force microscope (AFM) enabling the(More)
The rate at which atoms and ions within a plasma are further ionized by collisions with the free electrons is a fundamental parameter that dictates the dynamics of plasma systems at intermediate and high densities. While collision rates are well known experimentally in a few dilute systems, similar measurements for nonideal plasmas at densities approaching(More)
By use of high intensity XUV radiation from the FLASH free-electron laser at DESY, we have created highly excited exotic states of matter in solid-density aluminum samples. The XUV intensity is sufficiently high to excite an inner-shell electron from a large fraction of the atoms in the focal region. We show that soft-x-ray emission spectroscopy(More)
The x-ray intensities made available by x-ray free electron lasers (FEL) open up new x-ray matter interaction channels not accessible with previous sources. We report here on the resonant generation of Kα emission, that is to say the production of copious Kα radiation by tuning the x-ray FEL pulse to photon energies below that of the K edge of a solid(More)
We present an extended theoretical background of so-called fluence scan (f-scan or F-scan) method, which is frequently being used for offline characterization of focused short-wavelength (EUV, soft X-ray, and hard X-ray) laser beams [J. Chalupský et al., Opt. Express 18, 27836 (2010)]. The method exploits ablative imprints in various solids to visualize(More)