Learn More
Motor and visual cortices of normal volunteers were activated by transcranial magnetic stimulation. The electrical brain activity resulting from the brief electromagnetic pulse was recorded with high-resolution electroencephalography (HR-EEG) and located using inversion algorithms. The stimulation of the left sensorimotor hand area elicited an immediate(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a unique method for non-invasive brain imaging. The fundamental difference between TMS and other available non-invasive brain imaging techniques is that when a physiological response is evoked by stimulation of a cortical area, that specific cortical area is causally related to the response. With other imaging(More)
There is described a 60-channel EEG acquisition system designed for the recording of scalp-potential distributions starting just 2.5 ms after individual transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulses. The amplifier comprises gain-control and sample-and-hold circuits to prevent large artefacts from magnetically induced voltages in the leads. The maximum(More)
OBJECTIVE We have used EEG to measure effects of air- and bone-conducted sound from the coil in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). METHODS Auditory-evoked potentials to TMS were recorded in three different experimental conditions: (1) the coil 2 cm above the head, (2) the coil 2 cm above the head but rigidly connected by a plastic piece to the(More)
Recent progress in the theory and technology of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is leading to novel approaches in brain mapping. TMS becomes a powerful functional brain mapping tool when other imaging methods are used to record TMS-evoked activity or when peripheral effects are observed as a function of stimulus location. TMS-evoked activity(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to excite the human cortex noninvasively. TMS also activates scalp muscles and sensory receptors; additionally, the loud sound from the stimulating coil activates auditory pathways. These side effects complicate the interpretation of the results of TMS studies. For control experiments, we have designed a(More)
Knowledge of the electric field that is induced in the brain or the limbs is of importance in magnetic stimulation of the nervous system. Here, an analytical model based on the reciprocity theorem is used to compare the induced electric field in unbounded, semi-infinite, spherical, and cylinder-like volume conductors. Typical stimulation coil arrangements(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is accompanied with loud clicks that evoke auditory responses in the brain, confounding several types of TMS studies. We investigated the effects of these clicks with high-resolution EEG by applying TMS pulses at 3 magnitudes, with the coil placed either at 10 or 50 mm over the subjects' vertex and recording(More)
OBJECTIVE Explore the possibility that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the brain affects glial cells. METHODS Cable theory is used to estimate roughly transmembrane potential in neurons and glial cells. tDCS is additionally compared to neuronal stimulation techniques for which the mechanisms are well known. RESULTS Theoretical(More)