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Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to excite the human cortex noninvasively. TMS also activates scalp muscles and sensory receptors; additionally, the loud sound from the stimulating coil activates auditory pathways. These side effects complicate the interpretation of the results of TMS studies. For control experiments, we have designed a(More)
We demonstrate that spatially accurate and selective stimulation is crucial when cortical functions are studied by the creation of temporary lesions with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Previously, the interpretation of the TMS results has been hampered by inaccurate knowledge of the site and strength of the induced electric current in the brain.(More)
Dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Technology to be presented with due permission for public examination and debate in Auditorium F1 The supervisor of the work was Professor Toivo Katila; I am grateful for his invaluable support. I also want to thank the instructors, Docent Risto Ilmoniemi and Professor Ferdinando Grandori. During the years 1993−1998,(More)
OBJECTIVE Explore the possibility that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the brain affects glial cells. METHODS Cable theory is used to estimate roughly transmembrane potential in neurons and glial cells. tDCS is additionally compared to neuronal stimulation techniques for which the mechanisms are well known. RESULTS Theoretical(More)
OBJECTIVE To provide a new protocol for a simple determination of resting motor threshold (MT) and assessment of excitation-inhibition balance in motor cortex and pathways. METHODS Navigated TMS was used to map cortical representation area of the FDI muscle bilaterally in ten healthy subjects. Reference MTs were determined using a threshold hunting(More)
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a technique to stimulate the brain non-invasively. The applications range from accurate localization of the primary motor areas to potential treatment of disorders such as tinnitus, severe depression, and pain. Stereotactic guidance requires individual MR images of the subject's head, which is in some applications(More)
Magnetic stimulation of the nervous system is a non-invasive technique with a large number of applications in neurological diagnosis, brain research, and, recently, therapy. New applications require engineering modifications in order to decrease power consumption and coil heating. This can be accomplished by optimized coils with minimized resistance. In(More)
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