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We sampled 1,091 Icelandic broiler flocks at slaughter from May 2001 to December 2003 to determine the prevalence of, and investigate risk factors for the presence of, Campylobacter spp. at the flock level. Approximately 15% of the flocks were positive for Campylobacter spp.; most (95%) of the infected flocks being raised during the months of(More)
We describe the observed relationship of campylobacter in poultry operations to human cases in a closed environment. During 1999 in Iceland, domestic cases of campylobacteriosis reached peak levels at 116/100,000 and in 2000 dropped to 33/100,000. Approximately 62% of broiler carcass rinses were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. in 1999. During 2000,(More)
Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial food-borne infection in the industrial world. There is evidence that C. jejuni is present in eggs and hatchery fluff, opening the possibility for vertical transmission from hens to progeny. Poultry operations in Iceland provide an excellent opportunity to study this possibility, since breeding flocks are(More)
The objective of this study was to examine incidences of Campylobacter in broilers and humans, and to describe seasonal variation and long-term trends by comparing longitudinal surveillance data in six Northern European countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and the Netherlands). Due to high degree of seasonality and autocorrelation,(More)
In total, 215 commercially processed broiler carcasses were examined to determine optimum cultural enumeration, the effects of freezing, method of thawing, and duration of frozen storage on levels of Campylobacter spp. and fecal coliforms. Enumeration studies compared MPN procedures to direct plating onto selective mCCDA agar and indicated equivalency for(More)
Epidemics often result in organizational, policy and technical changes within a country. In 1999, an epidemic of campylobacteriosis was reported in Iceland. The recent availability of fresh poultry products in the marketplace was suggested as the source of infection. This paper reports on the context of the epidemic, reviews interventions implemented to(More)
BACKGROUND Following increased rates of human campylobacteriosis in the late 1990's, and their apparent association with increased consumption of fresh chicken meat, a longitudinal study was conducted in Iceland to identify the means to decrease the frequency of broiler flock colonization with Campylobacter. Our objective in this study was to identify risk(More)
Our objective was to identify temperature-related risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler-chicken flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, with an underlying assumption that at minimum ambient temperatures, flies (Musca domestica) play a role in the epidemiology and seasonality of Campylobacter. At slaughter, pooled caecal samples were(More)
Campylobacter jejuni remains the most frequently reported bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in Nordic countries. The primary source of transmission to humans is suggested as mishandled raw poultry or consuming improperly prepared chicken. The focus of this report was to characterize the prevalence and cell numbers of the organism within the(More)
To examine whether there is a relationship between the degree of Campylobacter contamination observed in product lots of retail Icelandic broiler chicken carcasses and the incidence of human disease, 1,617 isolates from 327 individual product lots were genetically matched (using the flaA short variable region [SVR[) to 289 isolates from cases of human(More)