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CONTEXT Deep brain stimulation (DBS) may be an effective intervention for treatment-resistant depression (TRD), but available data are limited. OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy and safety of subcallosal cingulate DBS in patients with TRD with either major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar II disorder (BP). DESIGN Open-label trial with a sham lead-in(More)
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and ablative neurosurgical procedures are established interventions for treatment-resistant depression (TRD), but their use may be limited in part by neuropsychological adverse effects. Additional neuromodulation strategies are being developed that aim to match or exceed the efficacy of ECT/ablative surgery with a better(More)
BACKGROUND Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is a pervasive and difficult to treat condition for which deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subcallosal cingulate white matter (SCCwm) is an emerging therapeutic option. However, neuropsychological safety data for this novel treatment have only been published for a small number of subjects. Moreover, little(More)
Emerging evidence supports a role for dopamine in major depressive disorder (MDD). We recently reported fewer spontaneously active ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons (ie reduced dopamine neuron population activity) in the chronic mild stress (CMS) rodent model of MDD. In this study, we examine the role of two brain regions that have been(More)
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