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A significant reduction (increase) of tropical storm activity over the Atlantic basin is observed during El Niño (La Niña) events. Furthermore, the number of Atlantic tropical storms displays an interdecadal variability with more storms in the 1950s and 1960s than in the 1970s and 1980s. Ensembles of simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model(More)
Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are useful in many chemical applications. Recent publications have attempted to determine the polarity of RTILs using empirical solvent polarity scales. The results have indicated that most RTILs have similar polarities. Nevertheless, RTILs are capable of behaving quite differently when used as solvents in organic(More)
The basic hydrodynamic equations governing transport in submicron pores are reexamined. Conditions necessary for a simplified, one-dimensional treatment of the diffusion/convection process are established. Steric restrictions and Brownian motion are incorporated directly into the resulting model. Currently available fluid mechanical results are used to(More)
A model for osmotic flow in porous membranes is developed from classical transport and thermodynamic relations. Mathematical expressions for the reflection coefficient as a function of solute dimension and shape, and more generally pore/bulk distribution coefficient, are derived for long cylindrical pores of circular cross section. For a rigid, spherical(More)
A focused-microwave assisted extraction method using aggregates of the ionic liquid (IL) 1-hexadecyl-3-butylimidazolium bromide (HDBIm-Br) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection and single-channel fluorescence detection (FLD) has been developed for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(More)
Neat crosslinked polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) sorbent coatings for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) compatible with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are reported for the first time. Six structurally different PILs were crosslinked to nitinol supports and applied for the determination of select pharmaceutical drugs, phenolics, and(More)
A theory for the effect of concentration on osmotic reflection coefficient, correct to first order, was developed at the molecular level by considering the effect of solute-solute interactions on solute concentration and the fluid stress tensor within a solvent-filled pore. The solvent was modeled as a continuous fluid and potential energies between solute(More)
The spectroscopy and photophysics of the photosensitizer hypericin when in homogeneous solutions and when bound to liposomes were studied. Hypericin was found to partition efficiently into DMPC liposomes, with a binding constant of 58 (mg lipid/mL)-1. In these liposomes the singlet oxygen production quantum yield was 0.43 +/- 0.09. To determine the(More)
The role of ionic liquids (ILs) in analytical chemistry is increasing substantially every year. A decade ago there were but a handful of papers in this area of research that were considered curiosities at best. Today, those publications are recognized as seminal articles that gave rise to one of the most rapidly expanding areas of research in chemical(More)