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The dorsolateral part of the striatum (DLS) represents the initial stage for processing sensorimotor information in the basal ganglia. Although the DLS receives much of its input from the primary somatosensory (SI) cortex, peripheral somesthetic stimulation activates the DLS at latencies that are shorter than the response latencies recorded in the SI(More)
Recent evidence indicates that the rat claustrum interconnects the motor cortical areas in both hemispheres. To elucidate the functional specificity of the interhemispheric connections between the claustrum and primary motor (MI) cortex, anterograde tracer injections in specific parts of MI were paired with retrograde tracer injections in homotopic sites of(More)
The function of the claustrum is a fundamental issue in neuroscience. Anatomical data indicate that the rat claustrum is part of an interhemispheric circuit that could be involved in the bilateral coordination of whisker movements. Given that whisking is a somesthetic-guided motor behavior, the goal of the current study was to elucidate the connections of(More)
To characterize the effect of severe hypoxia on neuronal activity, long-term intracellular recordings were made from neurones in the isolated central ring ganglia of Lymnaea stagnalis. When a neurone at rest in normoxia was subjected to severe hypoxia, action potential firing frequency decreased by 38% (from 2.4-1.5 spikes s(-1)), and the resting membrane(More)
We document a new type of perceptual effect in which asynchronous contrast signals are presented simultaneously with synchronous luminance signals. The template for the basic effect consists of two physically identical disks (.75-deg diameter, 40 cd/m2), one surrounded by a dark annulus (1.5 deg, 20 cd/m2) and the other by a light annulus (1.5 deg, 60(More)
The claustrum has a role in the interhemispheric transfer of certain types of sensorimotor information. Whereas the whisker region in rat motor (M1) cortex sends dense projections to the contralateral claustrum, the M1 forelimb representation does not. The claustrum sends strong ipsilateral projections to the whisker regions in M1 and somatosensory (S1)(More)
Rodent whisking is an exploratory behavior that can be modified by sensory feedback. Consistent with this, many whisker-sensitive cortical regions project to agranular motor [motor cortex (MI)] cortex, but the relative topography of these afferent projections has not been established. Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) evokes whisker movements that are(More)
Hemodynamic signals are widely used to infer neural activity in the brain. We tested the hypothesis that hemodynamic signals faithfully report neural activity during voluntary behaviors by measuring cerebral blood volume (CBV) and neural activity in the somatosensory cortex and frontal cortex of head-fixed mice during locomotion. Locomotion induced a large(More)
The dorsolateral striatum (DLS) is critical for executing sensorimotor behaviors that depend on stimulus-response (S-R) associations. In rats, the DLS receives it densest inputs from primary somatosensory (SI) cortex, but it also receives substantial input from the thalamus. Much of rat DLS is devoted to processing whisker-related information, and thalamic(More)
Changes in brain temperature can alter electrical properties of neurons and cause changes in behavior. However, it is not well understood how behaviors, like locomotion, or experimental manipulations, like anesthesia, alter brain temperature. We implanted thermocouples in sensorimotor cortex of mice to understand how cortical temperature was affected by(More)