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The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 40 influenza virus hemagglutinin genes of the H3 serotype from mammalian and avian species and 9 genes of the H4 serotype were compared, and their evolutionary relationships were evaluated. From these relationships, the differences in the mutational characteristics of the viral hemagglutinin in different hosts were(More)
When influenza (H3N2) viruses from infected individuals are grown in embryonated chicken eggs, viruses are isolated which differ antigenically and structurally from viruses grown in mammalian Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell culture [G.C. Schild, J.S. Oxford, J.C. de Jong, and R.G. Webster, Nature (London) 303:706-709, 1983]. To determine which of(More)
The influence of the host cell on the selection of antigenic variants of influenza A H3N2 viruses and the relevance of host cell selection to the induction of immunity by these viruses have been investigated. Influenza viruses were isolated from human clinical samples during a single epidemic, were passaged in mammalian Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK)(More)
Growth of clinical specimens of influenza viruses in eggs can result in the selection of antigenic variants distinct from corresponding viruses grown in mammalian tissue culture. To evaluate the contribution of host cell selection on the antigenic diversity of human influenza isolates, as seen in annual surveillance studies, viruses grown in embryonated(More)
Influenza virus (H3N2) host cell variants isolated from a single infected individual were compared for their protective efficacies when used as formalin-inactivated purified whole virus vaccines in ferrets. A/Mem/12/85 virus grown in embryonated chicken eggs (egg-grown), which differs from A/Mem/12/85 grown in mammalian Madin-Darby canine kidney cells(More)
Recent isolation of a novel swine-origin influenza A H3N2 variant virus [A(H3N2)v] from humans in the United States has raised concern over the pandemic potential of these viruses. Here, we analyzed the virulence, transmissibility, and receptor-binding preference of four A(H3N2)v influenza viruses isolated from humans in 2009, 2010, and 2011. High titers of(More)
Mice are widely used for studying influenza virus pathogenesis and immunology because of their low cost, the wide availability of mouse-specific reagents, and the large number of mouse strains available, including knockout and transgenic strains. However, mice do not fully recapitulate the signs of influenza infection of humans: transmission of influenza(More)
We establish that the cultivation of influenza (H3N2) virus from any infected individual in chicken embryos (eggs) can result in the isolation of viruses with antigenic and/or structural heterogeneity in the hemagglutinin (HA) molecule. This variability contrasted sharply with the apparent lack of antigenic alterations in the HA of influenza viruses(More)
Influenza viruses grown in embryonated chicken eggs frequently possess antigenically distinguishable hemagglutinin (HA) compared to virus from the same source grown in mammalian cell culture. To further investigate the extent of variation among viruses from an individual, viruses were isolated from throat washes collected over a 48-hr period during(More)
The role and interdependence of CD8+ and CD4+ alpha beta-T cells in the acute response after respiratory infection with the murine parainfluenza type 1 virus, Sendai virus, has been analyzed for H-2b mice. Enrichment of CD8+ virus-specific CTL effectors in the lungs of immunologically intact C57BL/6 animals coincided with the clearance of the virus from(More)