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We have cloned a mammalian (rat) homologue of Drosophila ether á go-go (eag) cDNA, which encodes a distinct type of voltage activated potassium (K) channel. The derived Drosophila and rat eag polypeptides share > 670 amino acids, with a sequence identity of 61%, exhibiting a high degree of similarity at the N-terminus, the hydrophobic core including the(More)
Detection of cytoplasmic DNA represents one of the most fundamental mechanisms of the innate immune system to sense the presence of microbial pathogens. Moreover, erroneous detection of endogenous DNA by the same sensing mechanisms has an important pathophysiological role in certain sterile inflammatory conditions. The endoplasmic-reticulum-resident protein(More)
Antiviral immunity is triggered by immunorecognition of viral nucleic acids. The cytosolic helicase RIG-I is a key sensor of viral infections and is activated by RNA containing a triphosphate at the 5' end. The exact structure of RNA activating RIG-I remains controversial. Here, we established a chemical approach for 5' triphosphate oligoribonucleotide(More)
MicroRNAs are small regulatory RNAs with many biological functions and disease associations. We showed that in situ hybridization (ISH) using conventional formaldehyde fixation results in substantial microRNA loss from mouse tissue sections, which can be prevented by fixation with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide that irreversibly immobilizes(More)
Distinct classes of small RNAs, 20-32 nucleotides long, play important regulatory roles for diverse cellular processes. It is therefore important to identify and quantify small RNAs as a function of development, tissue and cell type, in normal and disease states. Here we describe methods to prepare cDNA libraries from pools of small RNAs isolated from(More)
A second mammalian gene for the ether-à-go-go (eag) potassium channel has been cloned from the rat, and its predicted protein sequence is 70% identical to that of rat ether-à-go-go1 with a further 10% conservatively replaced residues. The rat eag2 mRNA was predominantly expressed in neural tissue and was not detected in adult skeletal, cardiac, or smooth(More)
Cyclic nucleotide-gated ionic channels in photoreceptors and olfactory sensory neurons are activated by binding of cGMP or cAMP to a receptor site on the channel polypeptide. By site-directed mutagenesis and functional expression of bovine wild-type and mutant channels in Xenopus oocytes, we have tested the hypothesis that an alanine/threonine difference in(More)
RIG-I is a cytosolic helicase that senses 5'-ppp RNA contained in negative-strand RNA viruses and triggers innate antiviral immune responses. Calorimetric binding studies established that the RIG-I C-terminal regulatory domain (CTD) binds to blunt-end double-stranded 5'-ppp RNA a factor of 17 more tightly than to its single-stranded counterpart. Here we(More)
Sequencing of small RNA cDNA libraries is an important tool for the discovery of new RNAs and the analysis of their mutational status as well as expression changes across samples. It requires multiple enzyme-catalyzed steps, including sequential oligonucleotide adapter ligations to the 3' and 5' ends of the small RNAs, reverse transcription (RT), and PCR.(More)
1. Screening of rat cortex cDNA resulted in cloning of two complete and one partial orthologue of the Drosophila ether-à-go-go-like K+ channel (elk). 2. Northern blot and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed predominant expression of rat elk mRNAs in brain. Each rat elk mRNA showed a distinct, but overlapping expression(More)