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This study attempts to provide a critical assessment of three different common approaches to identifying teactive species formed in biological systems: the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay, and the luminol- and lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence assays. There have been several contradictory reports about the specificity of these(More)
We investigated the relative importance of heroin and its metabolites in eliciting a behavioral response in mice by studying the relationship between concentrations of heroin, 6-monoacetylmorphine (6MAM), and morphine in brain tissue and the effects on locomotor activity. Low doses (subcutaneous) of heroin (< or =5 micromol/kg) or 6MAM (< or =15(More)
The aim of the present work was to use a three-choice simultaneous brightness discrimination test to examine the retention of non-spatial reference memory in rats treated with scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg) alone and in combination with various concentrations of D-cycloserine (DCS) (5, 15 and 50 mg/kg). Scopolamine given 1 h before testing for retention was found(More)
It has been demonstrated that a triple regimen consisting of procyclidine (6 mg/kg), diazepam (10 mg/kg) and pentobarbital (30 mg/kg) can effectively terminate soman-induced (1 x LD50) seizures/convulsions in rats when administered 30-40 min following onset. However, convulsive activity lasting for only 45 min can result in marked neuronal pathology. The(More)
Testicular cancer (TC) incidence is increasing worldwide, but the aetiology remains largely unknown. An unbalanced level of oestrogens and androgens in utero is hypothesized to influence TC risk. Polymorphisms in genes encoding cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes involved in metabolism of reproductive hormones, such as CYP1A1, CYP3A5 and CYP3A7, may contribute to(More)
Methadone is a synthetic opiate that is useful in a variety of clinical settings, including in maintenance therapy of heroin dependence and as an analgesic. However, methadone can have negative effects on cognition in humans and in rodents. The mechanisms underlying methadone-induced disruption in cognition are unknown. One possibility is that methadone(More)
A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method has been developed for the quantitative analysis of heroin and its major metabolites 6-acetylmorphine, morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine-6-glucuronide in blood and brain tissue, using 0.1-mL samples. We evaluated this method for analysis of heroin and its(More)
High blood-brain permeability and effective delivery of morphine to the brain have been considered as explanations for the high potency of heroin. Results from Andersen et al. indicate that 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), and not morphine, is the active metabolite responsible for the acute effects observed for heroin. Here, we use pharmacokinetic modeling on(More)
In this paper we show that exposure of a rat brain synaptosome fraction to the amyloid beta peptide fragment betaA(25-35), but not the inverted peptide betaA(35-25), stimulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The ROS formation was attenuated by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein, the(More)