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Francisella tularensis, a gram-negative bacterium, is the etiologic agent of tularemia and has recently been classified as a category A bioterrorism agent. Infections with F. tularensis result in an inflammatory response that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease; however, the cellular mechanisms mediating this response have not been(More)
Hog cholera virus (HCV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and border disease virus (BDV) are closely related pestiviruses. BVDV and BDV are found worldwide but seldom cause disease in swine. In contrast, HCV has been successfully eradicated from swine in several nations but poses a potentially devastating threat to them because of its great virulence.(More)
To determine if sheep scrapie agent(s) in the United States would induce a disease in cattle resembling bovine spongiform encephalopathy, 18 newborn calves were inoculated intracerebrally with a pooled suspension of brain from 9 sheep with scrapie. Half of the calves were euthanatized 1 year after inoculation. All calves kept longer than 1 year became(More)
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes a devastating disease in swine. The presence and transmission of PRRSV by boar semen has been demonstrated by using a swine bioassay. In this assay, 4- to 8-week-old pigs were inoculated intraperitoneally with semen from PRRSV-infected boars. Seroconversion of these piglets indicated the(More)
A fragment of alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AHV-1; malignant catarrhal fever) DNA was subcloned into pUC 18 and sequenced. The subclone hybridized strongly to AHV-1 DNA, weakly to alcelaphine herpesvirus-2 (AHV-2) DNA, and not at all to DNA from bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1; infectious bovine rhinotracheitis [IBR] virus), bovine herpesvirus-2 (BHV-2; bovine(More)
Pseudorabies virus (PRV), an alpha-herpesvirus, causes substantial economic losses in the swine industry and is currently the focus of eradication and control programs. Some of these programs rely on the ability of veterinarians to differentiate animals exposed to virulent strains of PRV from animals exposed to avirulent vaccine strains of PRV on the basis(More)
Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered among the etiological agents of human adult periodontitis. Although in vitro studies have shown that P. gingivalis has the ability to invade epithelial cell lines, its effect on the epithelial barrier junctions is not known. Immunofluorescence analysis of human gingival epithelial cells confirmed the presence of(More)
Antigenic differences between European and American isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were revealed by serologic analysis of a recombinant protein derived from PRRSV open reading frame 3 (ORF 3). The hydrophilic carboxyterminal 199 amino acids encoded by the ORF 3 of a European (Lelystad) isolate of PRRSV were expressed(More)
Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) is a nontoxic derivative of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that exhibits adjuvant properties similar to those of the parent LPS molecule. However, the mechanism by which MPL initiates its immunostimulatory properties remains unclear. Due to the involvement of Toll-like receptors in recognizing and transducing intracellular signals in(More)
Pseudorabies virus was isolated in cell culture from the brain tissue of a 3.5-year-old male Florida panther (Felis concolor coryi). The virus was not isolated from other tissues collected at necropsy. Based upon a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the virus was determined to have the classical wild-type virulent genotype, glycoprotein I+ (gI+) and(More)