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The use of high doses of the anti-cancer drug methotrexate (MTX) is associated with intestinal damage. As a result, mucosal immune cells become increasingly exposed to a vast amount of microbial stimuli. We aimed at determining whether these cells are still functional during MTX treatment. Furthermore, we assessed if activation of the mucosal immune system(More)
The accumulation of certain species of bacteria in the intestine is involved in both tissue homeostasis and immune-mediated pathologies. The host mechanisms involved in controlling intestinal colonization with commensal bacteria are poorly understood. We observed that under specific pathogen-free or germ-free conditions, intragastric administration of(More)
In Campylobacter jejuni-induced Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), molecular mimicry between C. jejuni lipooligosaccharide (LOS) and host gangliosides leads to the production of cross-reactive antibodies directed against the peripheral nerves of the host. Currently, the presence of surface exposed sialylated LOS in C. jejuni is the single known bacterial(More)
Many drugs prescribed to children are drug transporter substrates. Drug transporters are membrane-bound proteins that mediate the cellular uptake or efflux of drugs and are important to drug absorption and elimination. Very limited data are available on the effect of age on transporter expression. Our study assessed age-related gene expression of hepatic(More)
A decrease in the abundance and biodiversity of intestinal bacteria within the Firmicutes phylum has been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In particular, the anti-inflammatory bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, member of the Firmicutes phylum and one of the most abundant species in healthy human colon, is underrepresented in the(More)
In Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), ganglioside mimicry of Campylobacter jejuni lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS) drives the production of cross-reactive Abs to peripheral nerve gangliosides. We determined whether sialic acid residues in C. jejuni LOS modulate dendritic cell (DC) activation and subsequent B cell proliferation as a possible mechanism for the aberrant(More)
Nasal application of soluble Ags leads to Ag-specific suppression of systemic immune responses. This tolerance can be transferred to naive mice by CD4(+) regulatory T cells (T(R) cells) from the spleen, but little is known about the induction of mucosal T(R) cells in vivo. To investigate the induction of T(R) cells in the nose-draining cervical lymph node(More)
Intact interleukin-10 receptor (IL-10R) signaling on effector and T regulatory (Treg) cells are each independently required to maintain immune tolerance. Here we show that IL-10 sensing by innate immune cells, independent of its effects on T cells, was critical for regulating mucosal homeostasis. Following wild-type (WT) CD4(+) T cell transfer,(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease involves dysfunctional mucosal immune responses to commensal bacteria in genetically predisposed hosts. Interactions between host cells and bacteria are complicated, making it a challenge to assess their relative contribution to intestinal pathology. We developed a zebrafish model of(More)
The intestinal mucosa is continuously exposed to harmless exogenous antigens derived from food proteins and microbiota. Continuous surveillance by suppressive regulatory T cells prevents inflammatory responses to these antigens thereby maintaining intestinal homeostasis. The nature of the antigenic pressure varies at different locations of the intestinal(More)