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In Campylobacter jejuni-induced Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), molecular mimicry between C. jejuni lipooligosaccharide (LOS) and host gangliosides leads to the production of cross-reactive antibodies directed against the peripheral nerves of the host. Currently, the presence of surface exposed sialylated LOS in C. jejuni is the single known bacterial(More)
In Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), ganglioside mimicry of Campylobacter jejuni lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS) drives the production of cross-reactive Abs to peripheral nerve gangliosides. We determined whether sialic acid residues in C. jejuni LOS modulate dendritic cell (DC) activation and subsequent B cell proliferation as a possible mechanism for the aberrant(More)
Vagal nerve efferent activation has been shown to ameliorate the course of many inflammatory disease states. This neuro-modulatory effect has been suggested to rest on acetylcholine receptor (AChR) activation on tissue macrophages or dendritic cells (DCs). In more recent studies, vagal anti-inflammatory activity was shown involve adrenergic, splenic,(More)
The notion that the mucosal immune system maintains a tolerogenic response to harmless Ags while continually being challenged with microbial products seems an enigma. The aim of this study was to unravel mechanisms that are involved in regulating the development of tolerance under constant microbial pressure. The tolerogenic response to Ags administered via(More)
Disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier allows bacterial translocation and predisposes to destructive inflammation. To ensure proper barrier composition, crypt-residing stem cells continuously proliferate and replenish all intestinal epithelial cells within days. As a consequence of this high mitotic activity, mucosal surfaces are frequently(More)
The mucosal immune system is uniquely adapted to elicit immune responses against pathogens but also to induce tolerogenic responses to harmless antigens. In mice, nasal application of ovalbumin (OVA) leads to suppression of both T(h)1 and T(h)2 responses. This tolerance can be transferred to naive mice by CD4(+) T(r) cells from the spleen. Using the(More)
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii strain A2-165 was previously reported to have anti-inflammatory properties and prevent colitis in a TNBS model. We compared the immunomodulatory properties of strain A2-165 to four different F. prausnitzii isolates and eight abundant intestinal commensals using human dendritic cells (DCs) and mouse BMDCs in vitro. Principal(More)
IL-12 and IL-23 are heterodimeric cytokines involved in the induction of Th1 and Th17 immune responses. Previous work indicated that a region on chromosome 11 encoding the IL-12p40 subunit regulates strain differences in susceptibility to murine trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis. In addition, this region determines strain differences in(More)
BACKGROUND Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a post-infectious polyradiculoneuropathy, frequently associated with antecedent Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) infection. The presence of sialic acid on C. jejuni lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS) is considered a risk factor for development of GBS as it crucially determines the structural homology between LOS and(More)
OBJECTIVE In current clinical practice, optimal treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) aims at the induction and maintenance of clinical remission. Clinical remission is apparent when laboratory markers of inflammation are normal and clinical symptoms are absent. However, sub-clinical inflammation can still be present. A detailed analysis of the(More)