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The use of high doses of the anti-cancer drug methotrexate (MTX) is associated with intestinal damage. As a result, mucosal immune cells become increasingly exposed to a vast amount of microbial stimuli. We aimed at determining whether these cells are still functional during MTX treatment. Furthermore, we assessed if activation of the mucosal immune system(More)
The accumulation of certain species of bacteria in the intestine is involved in both tissue homeostasis and immune-mediated pathologies. The host mechanisms involved in controlling intestinal colonization with commensal bacteria are poorly understood. We observed that under specific pathogen-free or germ-free conditions, intragastric administration of(More)
In Campylobacter jejuni-induced Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), molecular mimicry between C. jejuni lipooligosaccharide (LOS) and host gangliosides leads to the production of cross-reactive antibodies directed against the peripheral nerves of the host. Currently, the presence of surface exposed sialylated LOS in C. jejuni is the single known bacterial(More)
In Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), ganglioside mimicry of Campylobacter jejuni lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS) drives the production of cross-reactive Abs to peripheral nerve gangliosides. We determined whether sialic acid residues in C. jejuni LOS modulate dendritic cell (DC) activation and subsequent B cell proliferation as a possible mechanism for the aberrant(More)
Intact interleukin-10 receptor (IL-10R) signaling on effector and T regulatory (Treg) cells are each independently required to maintain immune tolerance. Here we show that IL-10 sensing by innate immune cells, independent of its effects on T cells, was critical for regulating mucosal homeostasis. Following wild-type (WT) CD4(+) T cell transfer,(More)
The intestinal mucosa is continuously exposed to harmless exogenous antigens derived from food proteins and microbiota. Continuous surveillance by suppressive regulatory T cells prevents inflammatory responses to these antigens thereby maintaining intestinal homeostasis. The nature of the antigenic pressure varies at different locations of the intestinal(More)
Disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier allows bacterial translocation and predisposes to destructive inflammation. To ensure proper barrier composition, crypt-residing stem cells continuously proliferate and replenish all intestinal epithelial cells within days. As a consequence of this high mitotic activity, mucosal surfaces are frequently(More)
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a subset of lymphocytes that express cell surface molecules of both conventional T cells and natural killer cells and share the features of both innate and adaptive immune cells. NKT cells have been proposed to make both protective and pathogenic contributions to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). On the one hand, recent(More)
Mucosal tolerance prevents the body from eliciting productive immune responses against harmless Ags that enter the body via the mucosae, and is mediated by the induction of regulatory T cells that differentiate in the mucosa-draining lymph nodes (LN) under defined conditions of Ag presentation. In this study, we show that mice deficient in FcgammaRIIB(More)
BACKGROUND Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is the most frequently diagnosed food allergy in infancy. In general, patients have a good prognosis because the majority acquire tolerance within the first years. Interventions have been proposed to accelerate tolerance and reduce morbidity. Probiotic supplementation could be effective through modulation of the immune(More)