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BACKGROUND Trichomoniasis vaginalis is the most common nonviral sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide, with a particularly high prevalence in regions of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endemicity. However, its impact as a cofactor for HIV acquisition is poorly understood. METHODS Samples from 213 women who experienced HIV seroconversion(More)
We determined the prevalence, distribution and correlates of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in 386 mixed-income, sexually active women in São Paulo, Brazil. Endocervical samples were tested for HPV DNA with L1 primers MY09 and MY11; negative and indeterminate samples were retested using GP 5+/6+ consensus primers. HPV was detected in 35% of all women;(More)
BACKGROUND Research into reproductive health is dependent on participants accurately reporting sensitive behaviours. We examined whether audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI), which increased sensitive behaviour reporting in the US, is a feasible method of surveying in developing countries. METHODS Zimbabwean women in three educational groups(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate linkage-to-care, sexual behavior change, and psychosocial experiences among newly HIV-diagnosed female sex workers (FSWs) in Rwanda. METHODS FSWs (n = 800) with unknown serostatus were screened for HIV during 2007/2008. Women testing HIV positive (n = 192) were referred to care and asked to return for interviews and laboratory(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate interrelationships between bacterial vaginosis (BV), vaginal yeast, vaginal practices (cleansing and drying/tightening), mucosal inflammation, and HIV acquisition. METHODS A multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study was conducted, enrolling 4531 HIV-negative women aged 18 to 35 years attending family planning clinics in(More)
One of the great challenges in science and engineering today is to develop technologies to improve the health of people in the poorest regions of the world. Here we integrated new procedures for manufacturing, fluid handling and signal detection in microfluidics into a single, easy-to-use point-of-care (POC) assay that faithfully replicates all steps of(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effect of hormonal contraception including combined oral contraceptives (COCs), and the injectable progestins depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and norethisterone enanthate (Net-En) on the risk of HIV acquisition among women in South Africa. DESIGN/METHODS We analyzed data from 5567 women aged 16-49 years participating in(More)
BACKGROUND Data on prevalence and incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Rwanda are scarce. METHODS HBV status was assessed at baseline and Month 12, and anti-HCV antibodies at baseline, in a prospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients in Kigali, Rwanda: 104 men and 114 women initiating antiretroviral therapy(More)
This paper examines the reporting of sexual and other risk behaviors within a randomized experiment using a computerized versus face-to-face interview mode. Biomarkers for sexually transmitted infection (STI) were used to validate self-reported behavior by interview mode. As part of a parent study evaluating home versus clinic screening and diagnosis for(More)