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BACKGROUND Observational studies of a putative association between hormonal contraception (HC) and HIV acquisition have produced conflicting results. We conducted an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis of studies from sub-Saharan Africa to compare the incidence of HIV infection in women using combined oral contraceptives (COCs) or the injectable(More)
BACKGROUND Trichomoniasis vaginalis is the most common nonviral sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide, with a particularly high prevalence in regions of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endemicity. However, its impact as a cofactor for HIV acquisition is poorly understood. METHODS Samples from 213 women who experienced HIV seroconversion(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effect of hormonal contraception including combined oral contraceptives (COCs), and the injectable progestins depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and norethisterone enanthate (Net-En) on the risk of HIV acquisition among women in South Africa. DESIGN/METHODS We analyzed data from 5567 women aged 16-49 years participating in(More)
We determined the prevalence, distribution and correlates of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in 386 mixed-income, sexually active women in São Paulo, Brazil. Endocervical samples were tested for HPV DNA with L1 primers MY09 and MY11; negative and indeterminate samples were retested using GP 5+/6+ consensus primers. HPV was detected in 35% of all women;(More)
BACKGROUND Data on prevalence and incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Rwanda are scarce. METHODS HBV status was assessed at baseline and Month 12, and anti-HCV antibodies at baseline, in a prospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients in Kigali, Rwanda: 104 men and 114 women initiating antiretroviral therapy(More)
BACKGROUND Research into reproductive health is dependent on participants accurately reporting sensitive behaviours. We examined whether audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI), which increased sensitive behaviour reporting in the US, is a feasible method of surveying in developing countries. METHODS Zimbabwean women in three educational groups(More)
Commentary Microbicide development began more than fifteen years ago, when optimism about the swift development of an HIV vaccine began to wane, and researchers recognized that significant progress in HIV transmission prevention could not be expected with the currently available HIV-prevention tools (van de Wijgert and Coggins 2002). Sexual abstinence and(More)
Cervicovaginal microbiota not dominated by lactobacilli may facilitate transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as well as miscarriages, preterm births and sepsis in pregnant women. However, little is known about the exact nature of the microbiological changes that cause these adverse outcomes. In this study, cervical samples of(More)
BACKGROUND Not being able to procreate has severe social and economic repercussions in resource-poor countries. The purpose of this research was to explore the consequences of female and/or male factor infertility for men and women in Rwanda. METHODS Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. Couples presenting with female and/or male factor(More)
We assessed the agreement in detection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV), as well as specific HPV types, between self- and clinician-obtained specimens for 450 women over 18 years of age attending a community health center in Gugulethu, South Africa. Both self-collected swabs and tampons had high agreement with clinician-obtained brushes when the(More)