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The hypoglossal motor nucleus innervates the genioglossus (GG) muscle of the tongue, a muscle that helps maintain an open airway for effective breathing. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, however, recruits powerful neural mechanisms that can abolish GG activity even during strong reflex stimulation such as by hypercapnia, effects that can predispose to(More)
RATIONALE Exogenous serotonin at the hypoglossal motor nucleus (HMN) stimulates genioglossus (GG) muscle activity. However, whether endogenous serotonin contributes to GG activation across natural sleep-wake states has not been determined, but is relevant given that serotonergic neurons have decreased activity in sleep and project to pharyngeal motoneurons.(More)
The pharyngeal muscles, such as the genioglossus (GG) muscle of the tongue, are important for effective lung ventilation since they maintain an open airspace. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, however, recruits powerful neural mechanisms that can abolish GG activity, even during strong reflex respiratory stimulation by elevated CO2. In vitro studies have(More)
There is evidence for glycine and GABA(A)-receptor-mediated inhibition of hypoglossal motoneurons in vitro. However, comparable studies have not been performed in vivo, and the interactions of such mechanisms with integrative reflex respiratory control have also not been determined. This study tests the hypotheses that glycine at the hypoglossal motor(More)
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