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The hypoglossal motor nucleus innervates the genioglossus (GG) muscle of the tongue, a muscle that helps maintain an open airway for effective breathing. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, however, recruits powerful neural mechanisms that can abolish GG activity even during strong reflex stimulation such as by hypercapnia, effects that can predispose to(More)
RATIONALE Exogenous serotonin at the hypoglossal motor nucleus (HMN) stimulates genioglossus (GG) muscle activity. However, whether endogenous serotonin contributes to GG activation across natural sleep-wake states has not been determined, but is relevant given that serotonergic neurons have decreased activity in sleep and project to pharyngeal motoneurons.(More)
The pharyngeal muscles, such as the genioglossus (GG) muscle of the tongue, are important for effective lung ventilation since they maintain an open airspace. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, however, recruits powerful neural mechanisms that can abolish GG activity, even during strong reflex respiratory stimulation by elevated CO2. In vitro studies have(More)
Clinical depression is diagnosed in 5-15% of women during pregnancy, increasing the risk of negative outcomes. Fluoxetine (FX), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is prescribed during pregnancy. In adults, FX alters sleep patterns with single doses decreasing total sleep time and rapid eye movement sleep. The effects of FX on sleep in the fetus are(More)
BACKGROUND Placental insufficiency is the leading cause of intrauterine growth restriction in the developed world and results in chronic hypoxemia in the fetus. Oxygen is essential for fetal heart development, but a hypoxemic environment in utero can permanently alter development of cardiomyocytes. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of(More)
There is evidence for glycine and GABA(A)-receptor-mediated inhibition of hypoglossal motoneurons in vitro. However, comparable studies have not been performed in vivo, and the interactions of such mechanisms with integrative reflex respiratory control have also not been determined. This study tests the hypotheses that glycine at the hypoglossal motor(More)
The genioglossus muscle is involved in the maintenance of an open airway for effective breathing. Inhibitory neurotransmitters may be responsible for the major suppression of hypoglossal motor output to genioglossus muscle that occurs in certain behaviours such as rapid-eye-movement sleep. There is evidence for GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition of(More)
The placenta is the primary interface between the fetus and mother and plays an important role in maintaining fetal development and growth by facilitating the transfer of substrates and participating in modulating the maternal immune response to prevent immunological rejection of the conceptus. The major substrates required for fetal growth include oxygen,(More)
Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) have revolutionised reproductive medicine; however, reports assessing the effects of ARTs have raised concerns about the immediate and long-term health outcomes of the children conceived through ARTs. ARTs include manipulations during the periconceptional period, which coincides with an environmentally sensitive(More)
In the fetus, there is a redistribution of cardiac output in response to acute hypoxemia, to maintain perfusion of key organs, including the brain, heart, and adrenal glands. There may be a similar redistribution of cardiac output in the chronically hypoxemic, intrauterine growth-restricted fetus. Surgical removal of uterine caruncles in nonpregnant ewe(More)