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The hypoglossal motor nucleus innervates the genioglossus (GG) muscle of the tongue, a muscle that helps maintain an open airway for effective breathing. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, however, recruits powerful neural mechanisms that can abolish GG activity even during strong reflex stimulation such as by hypercapnia, effects that can predispose to(More)
RATIONALE Exogenous serotonin at the hypoglossal motor nucleus (HMN) stimulates genioglossus (GG) muscle activity. However, whether endogenous serotonin contributes to GG activation across natural sleep-wake states has not been determined, but is relevant given that serotonergic neurons have decreased activity in sleep and project to pharyngeal motoneurons.(More)
1. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been associated with poor perinatal health outcomes. Animal models have been used to investigate why IUGR is associated with a poor prognosis. The sheep has been used extensively as an experimental model for IUGR with poor placental substrate supply to the fetus induced using a range of methods, including the(More)
The pharyngeal muscles, such as the genioglossus (GG) muscle of the tongue, are important for effective lung ventilation since they maintain an open airspace. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, however, recruits powerful neural mechanisms that can abolish GG activity, even during strong reflex respiratory stimulation by elevated CO2. In vitro studies have(More)
A world-wide series of epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated that there is an association between being small at birth, accelerated growth in early postnatal life and the emergence of insulin resistance in adult life. The aim of this study was to investigate why accelerated growth occurs in postnatal life after in utero growth(More)
There is an association between growing slowly before birth, accelerated growth in early postnatal life and the emergence of insulin resistance, visceral obesity and glucose intolerance in adult life. In this review we consider the pathway through which intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) leads to the initial increase in insulin sensitivity and to(More)
Depression during pregnancy is frequently treated with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine (FX). FX increases serotonergic neurotransmission and serotonin plays a role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We have therefore investigated the effect of chronic administration of FX to the pregnant ewe on the(More)
The 'developmental origins of adult health and disease' hypothesis stated that environmental factors, particularly maternal undernutrition, act in early life to programme the risks for adverse health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity and the metabolic syndrome in adult life. Early physiological tradeoffs, including activation of the foetal(More)
There is a need to understand the separate or interdependent contributions of maternal prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, glycaemic control, and macronutrient intake on the metabolic outcomes for the offspring. Experimental studies highlight that there may be separate influences of maternal obesity during the periconceptional period and late(More)
OBJECTIVE This study aimed to investigate neonatal outcomes after prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during late-gestation. METHODS A retrospective cohort study was conducted using linked records from the Women's and Children's Health Network in South Australia, Australia, including the Perinatal Statistics Collection and(More)