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Previous studies have shown that most patients with bilateral macular disease use a single retinal area during fixation which is typically located near the edge of the central scotoma. Through frame-by-frame playback of videorecordings showing the target's image on each patient's fundus, we evaluated the sequences of eye movements the patients make during(More)
To explain the veridical percept of the spatial ordering of objects and the generation of eye movements to peripheral targets, Lotze (1885 Microcosmos. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark) proposed that there is a position label (local sign) for each retinal element. To estimate the precision of local sign information, we measured absolute localization thresholds at(More)
BACKGROUND Adaptation models of the horizontal disparity vergence system assume a nonadaptable transient component. They also predict identical postadaptation dynamics during convergence and divergence movements. METHOD To test the adaptation property of the transient component, a set of experiments were performed in which closed-loop vergence dynamics(More)
We present a neural network model of short-term dynamics of the human horizontal vergence system (HVS) and compare its predictions qualitatively and quantitatively with a large variety of horizontal disparity vergence data. The model consists of seven functional stages, namely: (1) computation of instantaneous disparity; (2) generation of a disparity map;(More)
The distribution of the origin of corpus callosum neurons was investigated in cats reared with an optically induced strabismus by applying horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to severed callosal axons. These animals demonstrated an enlargement of the region of callosal connectivity compared to normal cats. Bilaterally there was an expanded efferent zone, with(More)
BACKGROUND A high percentage of stroma predicts poor survival in triple-negative breast cancers but is diminished in studies of unselected cases. We determined the prognostic significance of tumour-stroma ratio (TSR) in oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive male and female breast carcinomas. METHODS TSR was measured in haematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue(More)
Increment-threshold spectral sensitivity functions were determined during the dominance and suppression phases of binocular rivalry. The shapes of the functions obtained during the dominance phase exhibited three maxima at approximately 440, 530, and 610 nanometers and resembled functions obtained for nonrivalrous control conditions. However, the functions(More)
We present a neural network model of short-term dynamics of the human horizontal vergence system (HVS) and compare its predictions qualitatively and quantitatively with a large variety of horizontal disparity vergence data. The model consists of seven functional stages, namely: (1) computation of instantaneous disparity; (2) generation of a disparity map;(More)
Contrast sensitivity functions (CSFs) were determined on a large group of patients with macular degeneration to better assess qualitative aspects of their residual vision. Contrast sensitivity was also determined through the telescopic low-vision aids of selected patients. In general, the patients have a substantial loss of contrast sensitivity for all(More)
PURPOSE Prolonged near work is considered to be an environmental factor leading to the development of late-onset myopia. Accommodation may be the specific mechanism underlying the association between near work and late-onset myopia. To determine whether late-onset myopes have abnormal accommodation, we compared accommodative static responses and dynamic(More)