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An important approach for understanding complex disease risk using the mouse is to map and ultimately identify the genes conferring risk. Genes contributing to complex traits can be mapped to chromosomal regions using genome scans of large mouse crosses. Congenic strains can then be developed to fine-map a trait and to ascertain the magnitude of the(More)
Several microsatellite genotyping panel sets have been developed that are polymorphic between C57BL/6J and CAST/Ei mice, or C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. One set of markers for each strain pair has an intermarker distance of approximately 20 cM, and a second set has an intermarker distance of 5 cM. The 20-cM set contains 105 markers for C57BL/6J x DBA/2J and 108 for(More)
A series of 1,3-disubstituted-2-imidazolium carboxylates, an adduct of CO(2) and N-heterocyclic carbenes, were synthesized and characterized using single crystal X-ray, thermogravimetric, IR, and NMR analysis. The TGA analysis of the NHC-CO(2)'s shows that as steric bulk on the N-substituent increases, the ability of the NHC-CO(2) to decarboxylate(More)
Combination of 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazolum-2-carboxylate (IPrCO(2)) with the Lewis acids MBPh(4), where M = Li or Na, provided two separate complexes. The crystal structures of these complexes revealed that coordination to NaBPh(4) yielded a dimeric species, yet coordination of IPrCO(2) with LiBPh(4) yielded a monomeric species. Combination of(More)
The search for a model that can be used to describe the optical excitation migration in dendrimers has attracted great attention. In most cases in a dendrimer the conjugation is disrupted at the branching point; however, the excitation is delocalized. The strength of interactions among neighboring chromophores plays a key role in determining the energy(More)
An easy and expeditious route to substituted piperidines is described. A Ni-phosphine complex was used as catalyst for [4 + 2] cycloaddition of 3-azetidinone and alkynes. The reaction has broad substrate scope and affords piperidines in excellent yields and excellent regioselectivity. In the reaction of an enantiopure azetidinone, complete retention of(More)
A mild and general route for preparing 2-pyrones from CO2 and diynes is described. Under only 1 atm of CO2, excellent yields of pyrone are obtained using catalytic amounts of Ni(COD)2 and imidazolylidene ligand, IPr. In addition, stoichiometric reactions between the isolated complex Ni(IPr)2, diynes, and CO2 suggest that the pathway involves initial(More)
A mild and general route for preparing pyridines from nitriles and diynes is described. Ni/imidazolyidene complexes were used to mediate cyclization alkynes and both aryl and alkyl nitriles at ambient temperature. In addition, the efficacy of this protocol allows for the preparation of a fused seven-membered pyridone and for intermolecular cyclizations.(More)