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Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can non-invasively examine the molecular diffusion of water in vivo and directly reflects the anatomical integrity of neural fibers in white matter. Fractional anisotropy (FA) can be calculated from DTI data, and utilized to evaluate white matter integrity. DTI was performed on 30 patients with schizophrenia and 19 healthy(More)
BACKGROUND Youths with bipolar disorder are ideal for studying illness pathophysiology given their early presentation, lack of extended treatment, and high genetic loading. Adult bipolar disorder MRI studies have focused increasingly on limbic structures and the thalamus because of their role in mood and cognition. On the basis of adult studies, the authors(More)
OBJECTIVES Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) assesses the integrity of white matter (WM) tracts in the brain. Children with bipolar disorder (BPD) may have WM abnormalities that precede illness onset. To more fully examine this possibility, we scanned children with DSM-IV BPD and compared them to healthy peers and children at risk for BPD(More)
OBJECTIVE The limbic structures in early-onset schizophrenia-spectrum illness (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD) were studied to discern patterns associated with diagnosis and sex. METHODS Thirty-five youths with DSM-IV BPD without psychosis, 19 with BPD with psychosis, 20 with SZ, and 29 healthy controls (HC), similar in age (6-17 years) and sex, underwent(More)
Significant resources around the world have been invested in neuroimaging studies of brain function and disease. Easier access to this large body of work should have profound impact on research in cognitive neuroscience and psychiatry, leading to advances in the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric and neurological disease. A trend toward increased(More)
BACKGROUND Neuroimaging studies of early-onset bipolar disorder (BD) are important in order to establish a fuller understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of the illness. The advantages of studying BD in children and adolescents include the relative absence of some confounds present in adult-onset research, such as lengthy duration of illness and(More)
OBJECTIVE Few magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of bipolar disorder (BPD) have investigated the entire cerebral cortex. Cortical gray matter (GM) volume deficits have been reported in some studies of adults with BPD; this study assessed the presence of such deficits in children with BPD. METHODS Thirty-two youths with DSM-IV BPD (mean age 11.2 +/-(More)
OBJECTIVE Metformin was assessed as an interventional medication for weight gain in children and adolescents taking atypical antipsychotic agents. METHOD A 12-week open-label trial was conducted to evaluate metformin's effectiveness and safety for weight management. Eleven subjects, ages 10-18 years, participated in the study. Each subject received(More)
BACKGROUND Basal ganglia (BG) enlargement has been found in studies of adults with bipolar disorder (BPD), while the few studies of BPD youths have had mixed findings. The BG (caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, nucleus accumbens) is interconnected with limbic and prefrontal cortical structures and therefore may be implicated in BPD. METHODS Sixty-eight(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors' goal was to determine if there is an association between brain-to-serum lithium ratios and age. METHOD Lithium-7 magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure in vivo brain lithium levels in nine children and adolescents (mean age=13.4 years, SD=3.6) and 18 adults (mean age=37.3, SD=9.1) with bipolar disorder. RESULTS Serum(More)