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CONTEXT Reduced intake of saturated fat is widely recommended for prevention of cardiovascular disease. The type of macronutrient that should replace saturated fat remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of 3 healthful diets, each with reduced saturated fat intake, on blood pressure and serum lipids. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS(More)
The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension trial was a randomized, multicenter, controlled feeding study to compare the effect on blood pressure of 3 dietary patterns: control, fruits and vegetables, and combination diets. The patterns differed in selected nutrients hypothesized to alter blood pressure. This article examines the food-group structure and(More)
CONTEXT Reduced energy expenditure following weight loss is thought to contribute to weight gain. However, the effect of dietary composition on energy expenditure during weight-loss maintenance has not been studied. OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of 3 diets differing widely in macronutrient composition and glycemic load on energy expenditure following(More)
Previous studies have shown that supplementation of the diet with oat bran may lower serum cholesterol levels. However, it is not known whether oat-bran diets lower serum cholesterol levels by replacing fatty foods in the diet or by a direct effect of the dietary fiber contained in oat bran. To determine which is the case, we compared the effect of(More)
CONTEXT Weight loss elicits physiological adaptations relating to energy intake and expenditure that antagonize ongoing weight loss. OBJECTIVE To test whether dietary composition affects the physiological adaptations to weight loss, as assessed by resting energy expenditure. DESIGN, STUDY, AND PARTICIPANTS: A randomized parallel-design study of 39(More)
BACKGROUND Effects of diet on blood lipids are best known in white men, and effects of type of carbohydrate on triacylglycerol concentrations are not well defined. OBJECTIVE Our goal was to determine the effects of diet on plasma lipids, focusing on subgroups by sex, race, and baseline lipid concentrations. DESIGN This was a randomized controlled(More)
The DASH Diet, Sodium Intake and Blood Pressure Trial (DASH-Sodium) is a multicenter, randomized trial comparing the effects of 3 levels of sodium intake and 2 dietary patterns on blood pressure among adults with higher than optimal blood pressure or with stage 1 hypertension (120-159/80-95 mm Hg). The 2 dietary patterns are a control diet typical of what(More)
A large body of evidence suggests that several nutrients are related to blood pressure. Less is known about the eating patterns of special populations, such as those at risk for hypertension, or how demographic factors affect the diets of these populations. This article characterizes the usual diets of participants before they enrolled in the Dietary(More)
BACKGROUND The DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet is a carbohydrate-rich, reduced-fat diet that lowers blood pressure (BP) and LDL-cholesterol. Whether partial replacement of some carbohydrate (C) with either protein (P) or unsaturated fat (U) can further improve these and other cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors is unknown. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND The concept of a body weight set point, determined predominantly by genetic mechanisms, has been proposed to explain the poor long-term results of conventional energy-restricted diets in the treatment of obesity. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to examine whether dietary composition affects hormonal and metabolic adaptations to energy(More)