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The physiological and anatomical properties of an unpaired intersegmental interneuron designated cell 205 are described. Cell 205 is unusual among leech neurons in that it combines a variety of functional properties in a single cell. Constant current depolarization of cell 205 initiates and maintains swimming behavior in semi-intact leeches or the swim(More)
BACKGROUND Investigators have to obtain informed consent before enrolling participants in clinical trials. We wanted to measure the quality of understanding among participants in clinical trials of cancer therapies, to identify correlates of increased understanding, and to assess providers' beliefs about clinical research. We also sought evidence of(More)
In the tobacco hornworm caterpillar, tactile stimulation of sensory hairs located on the tip of a proleg (the planta) evokes ipsilateral or bilateral retraction of the prolegs in that segment. We have used electrophysiological and anatomical methods to investigate the excitatory neural pathways linking the planta hair afferents and the proleg retractor(More)
The larval-pupal transformation of Manduca sexta results from an exposure to ecdysteroids in the absence of juvenile hormone (the commitment pulse), followed by a larger exposure to ecdysteroids (the prepupal peak) with a reappearance of juvenile hormone (JH). The prepupal ecdysteroid peak triggers the degeneration of abdominal muscles, and the dendritic(More)
The abdominal prolegs of Manduca sexta larvae are eliminated at the onset of metamorphosis. Previous work showed that the prepupal peak of ecdysteroids in the hemolymph causes the dendritic arbors of proleg motoneurons to regress and a stereotyped subset of the motoneurons to die. In the present study we investigated the parameters of ecdysteroid exposure(More)
Manduca sexta molts several times as a larva (caterpillar) before becoming a pupa and then an adult moth. Each molt culminates in ecdysis behavior, during which the old cuticle is shed. Prior to each larval ecdysis, the old cuticle is loosened by pre-ecdysis behavior, which includes rhythmic, synchronous compressions of the abdomen. A previous study(More)
The principal locomotory appendages of larval Manduca sexta, the prolegs, bear at their tips an array of mechanosensory hairs (the planta hairs). Each of the single sensory neurones associated with a planta hair sends an axon into the ganglion of the same segment where the afferent terminals make synaptic contact with interneurones and motoneurones.(More)
The tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, undergoes several larval molts before transforming into a pupa and then an adult moth. Each molt culminates in ecdysis, when the old cuticle is shed. Prior to each larval ecdysis, the old cuticle is loosened by pre-ecdysis behavior, which consists of rhythmic compressions that are synchronous along the abdomen and on(More)