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Motor skills can take weeks to months to acquire and can diminish over time in the absence of continued practice. Thus, strategies that enhance skill acquisition or retention are of great scientific and practical interest. Here we investigated the effect of noninvasive cortical stimulation on the extended time course of learning a novel and challenging(More)
Despite its increasing use in experimental and clinical settings, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) remain unknown. Anodal tDCS applied to the human motor cortex (M1) improves motor skill learning. Here, we demonstrate in mouse M1 slices that DCS induces a long-lasting synaptic potentiation(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was initially used to evaluate the integrity of the corticospinal tract in humans non-invasively. Since these early studies, the development of paired-pulse and repetitive TMS protocols allowed investigators to explore inhibitory and excitatory interactions of various motor and non-motor cortical regions within and(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has shown preliminary success in improving motor performance and motor learning in healthy individuals, and restitution of motor deficits in stroke patients. This brief review highlights some recent work. RECENT FINDINGS Within the past years, behavioural studies have confirmed and specified(More)
PURPOSE There are only few studies on the costs of epilepsy in Germany. Therefore, we performed a pilot study to estimate the direct and indirect costs of refractory epilepsy in a German epilepsy center. METHODS A "prevalence-based," cross-sectional convenience sample of adults with active epilepsy attending the outpatient clinic of our tertiary epilepsy(More)
This review updates and consolidates evidence on the safety of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). Safety is here operationally defined by, and limited to, the absence of evidence for a Serious Adverse Effect, the criteria for which are rigorously defined. This review adopts an evidence-based approach, based on an aggregation of experience from(More)
Noninvasive brain stimulation has developed as a promising tool for cognitive neuroscientists. Transcranial magnetic (TMS) and direct current (tDCS) stimulation allow researchers to purposefully enhance or decrease excitability in focal areas of the brain. The purpose of this paper is to review information on the use of TMS and tDCS as research tools to(More)
The combination of pharmacology and transcranial magnetic stimulation to study the effects of drugs on TMS-evoked EMG responses (pharmaco-TMS-EMG) has considerably improved our understanding of the effects of TMS on the human brain. Ten years have elapsed since an influential review on this topic has been published in this journal (Ziemann, 2004). Since(More)
PURPOSE Topiramate (TPM) is a novel drug with broad antiepileptic effect in children and adults. In vitro studies suggest activity as sodium-channel blocker, as gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA)-receptor agonist and as non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-glutamate receptor antagonist. METHODS With transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we evaluated(More)
Consolidation of motor skills after training can occur in a time- or sleep-dependent fashion. Recent studies revealed time-dependent consolidation as a common feature of visuomotor tasks. We have previously shown that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in combination with repeated motor training benefits consolidation by the induction of(More)