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Motor skills can take weeks to months to acquire and can diminish over time in the absence of continued practice. Thus, strategies that enhance skill acquisition or retention are of great scientific and practical interest. Here we investigated the effect of noninvasive cortical stimulation on the extended time course of learning a novel and challenging(More)
Despite its increasing use in experimental and clinical settings, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) remain unknown. Anodal tDCS applied to the human motor cortex (M1) improves motor skill learning. Here, we demonstrate in mouse M1 slices that DCS induces a long-lasting synaptic potentiation(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was initially used to evaluate the integrity of the corticospinal tract in humans non-invasively. Since these early studies, the development of paired-pulse and repetitive TMS protocols allowed investigators to explore inhibitory and excitatory interactions of various motor and non-motor cortical regions within and(More)
PURPOSE There are only few studies on the costs of epilepsy in Germany. Therefore, we performed a pilot study to estimate the direct and indirect costs of refractory epilepsy in a German epilepsy center. METHODS A "prevalence-based," cross-sectional convenience sample of adults with active epilepsy attending the outpatient clinic of our tertiary epilepsy(More)
The combination of pharmacology and transcranial magnetic stimulation to study the effects of drugs on TMS-evoked EMG responses (pharmaco-TMS-EMG) has considerably improved our understanding of the effects of TMS on the human brain. Ten years have elapsed since an influential review on this topic has been published in this journal (Ziemann, 2004). Since(More)
PURPOSE Topiramate (TPM) is a novel drug with broad antiepileptic effect in children and adults. In vitro studies suggest activity as sodium-channel blocker, as gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA)-receptor agonist and as non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-glutamate receptor antagonist. METHODS With transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we evaluated(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has shown preliminary success in improving motor performance and motor learning in healthy individuals, and restitution of motor deficits in stroke patients. This brief review highlights some recent work. RECENT FINDINGS Within the past years, behavioural studies have confirmed and specified(More)
Convergent findings point to a left-sided specialization for the representation of learned actions in right-handed humans, but it is unknown whether analogous hemispheric specialization exists for motor skill learning. In the present study, we explored this question by comparing the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with cerebral cavernomas have an estimated risk of the development of epilepsy of 1.5% to 2.4% per patient-year. OBJECTIVE To clarify the predictive value of different risk factors for epilepsy in patients with supratentorial cavernomas. METHODS We retrospectively analyzed data of 109 patients with supratentorial cavernomas. The(More)
We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) and healthy controls to characterise motorcortical excitability in the morning as compared to the evening. Intra- and interindividual comparisons in JME-patients and controls showed no significant differences of any TMS parameter. The expected rise of the(More)