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The elucidation of the human genome sequence has made it possible to identify genetic alterations in cancers in unprecedented detail. To begin a systematic analysis of such alterations, we determined the sequence of well-annotated human protein-coding genes in two common tumor types. Analysis of 13,023 genes in 11 breast and 11 colorectal cancers revealed(More)
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are lipid kinases that regulate signaling pathways important for neoplasia, including cell proliferation, adhesion, survival, and motility (1–3). To determine if PI3Ks are genetically altered in tumorigenesis, we sequenced PI3K genes in human cancers and corresponding normal tissue. Hidden Markov models were used to(More)
Human cancer is caused by the accumulation of mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. To catalog the genetic changes that occur during tumorigenesis, we isolated DNA from 11 breast and 11 colorectal tumors and determined the sequences of the genes in the Reference Sequence database in these samples. Based on analysis of exons representing 20,857(More)
Modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the brain by protein phosphorylation may play a central role in the regulation of synaptic plasticity. To examine the phosphorylation of the NR1 subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in situ, we have generated several polyclonal antibodies that recognize the NR1 subunit only when specific serine residues(More)
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are known regulators of cellular growth and proliferation. It has recently been reported that somatic mutations within the PI3K subunit p110alpha (PIK3CA) are present in human colorectal and other cancers. Here we show that thirteen of fifty-three breast cancers (25%) contain somatic mutations in PIK3CA, with the(More)
Tyrosine phosphorylation, regulated by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and kinases (PTKs), is important in signaling pathways underlying tumorigenesis. A mutational analysis of the tyrosine phosphatase gene superfamily in human cancers identified 83 somatic mutations in six PTPs (PTPRF, PTPRG, PTPRT, PTPN3, PTPN13, PTPN14), affecting 26% of colorectal(More)
Protein kinases are enzymes that are important for controlling cellular growth and invasion, and their malfunction is implicated in the development of some tumours. We analysed human colorectal cancers for genetic mutations in 340 serine/threonine kinases and found mutations in eight genes, including in three members of the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase(More)
Although a small fraction of human cancers have increased rates of somatic mutation because of known deficiencies in DNA repair, little is known about the prevalence of somatic alterations in the vast majority of human cancers. To systematically assess nonsynonymous somatic alterations in colorectal neoplasia, we used DNA sequencing to analyze approximately(More)
Although most colorectal cancers are chromosomally unstable, the basis for this instability has not been defined. To determine whether genes shown to cause chromosomal instability in model systems were mutated in colorectal cancers, we identified their human homologues and determined their sequence in a panel of colorectal cancers. We found 19 somatic(More)