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GABA(A) receptors are the major ionotropic inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors. The endocannabinoid system is a lipid signaling network that modulates different brain functions. Here we show a direct molecular interaction between the two systems. The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) potentiates GABA(A) receptors at low concentrations of(More)
Despite extensive research on the trafficking of anandamide (AEA) across cell membranes, little is known about the membrane transport of other endocannabinoids, such as 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Previous studies have provided data both in favor and against a cell membrane carrier-mediated transport of endocannabinoids, using different methodological(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Pharmacological activation of cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) receptors is a therapeutic strategy to treat chronic and inflammatory pain. It was recently reported that a mixture of natural triterpenes α- and β-amyrin bound selectively to CB(1) receptors with a subnanomolar K(i) value (133 pM). Orally administered α/β-amyrin inhibited(More)
The major endocannabinoids (ECs) arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and related N-ethanolamines act as full and partial agonists at CB(1), CB(2), GPR55, PPAR and TRPV1 receptors to various degrees. These receptors are also expressed in immune cells like monocytes/macrophages where they regulate different cellular processes. In(More)
A diverse set of 24 novel phages infecting the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora was isolated from fruit production environments in Switzerland. Based on initial screening, four phages (L1, M7, S6, and Y2) with broad host ranges were selected for detailed characterization and genome sequencing. Phage L1 is a member of the Podoviridae, with a 39.3-kbp(More)
The micronutrient selenium is found in proteins as selenocysteine (Sec), the 21st amino acid cotranslationally inserted in response to a UGA codon. In vitro studies in archaea and mouse showed that Sec-tRNA(Sec) formation is a 3-step process starting with serylation of tRNA(Sec) by seryl-tRNA synthetase (SerRS), phosphorylation of serine to form(More)
The rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale) is employed in Asian traditional medicine to treat mild forms of rheumatoid arthritis and fever. We have profiled ginger constituents for robust effects on proinflammatory signaling and cytokine expression in a validated assay using human whole blood. Independent of the stimulus used (LPS, PMA, anti-CD28 Ab,(More)
Cerebral malaria is a severe and often fatal complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. It is characterized by parasite sequestration, a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier, and a strong inflammation in the brain. We investigated the role of the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), an important modulator of neuroinflammatory responses, in experimental(More)
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