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Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were trained to discriminate between vertical angles subtended by paired beads suspended from fishing line. Bats were rewarded for choosing the smaller of the two angles presented. The difference between the angles was changed systematically using a transformed up-down procedure and the bats' ability to detect the(More)
To measure the directionality of the external ear of the echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscus, the left or right eardrum of a dead bat was replaced by a microphone which recorded signals received from a sound source that was moved around the stationary head. The test signal was a 0.5-ms FM sweep from 100 kHz to 10 kHz (covering all frequencies in the bat's(More)
Measurements of external ear transfer functions in the echolocating bat Eptesicus fuscus have revealed a prominent spectral notch that decreases in center frequency (50 to 30-35 kHz) as elevation decreases [Wotton et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 1423-1445 (1995)]. To examine the influence of this notch, four Eptesicus were trained to discriminate between(More)
The acoustic information used by bats is produced by a combination of the properties of the sound emission and the reception at the eardrum. The potential localization cues used by bats can only be fully revealed when the magnitude spectra of the emission and the external ear are convolved to produce the echolocation combination magnitude spectra. The(More)
The information echolocating bats receive is a combination of the properties of the sound they emit and the sound they receive at the eardrum. Convolving the emission and the external ear transfer functions produces the full spectral information contained in the echolocation combination. Spatially dependent changes in the magnitude spectra of the emission,(More)
Typically, individual neural cells operate on a millisecond time scale yet behaviorally animals reveal sub-microsecond acuity. Our model resolves this huge discrepancy by using populations of many widely tuned cells to attain sub-microsecond resolution in a temporal discrimination task. An echolocating bat uses its auditory system to locate objects and it(More)
The external-ear transfer function for big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) contains two prominent notches that vary from 30 to 55 kHz and from 70 to 100 kHz, respectively, as sound-source elevation moves from -40 to +10 degrees. These notches resemble a higher-frequency version of external-ear cues for vertical localization in humans and other mammals.(More)
Ambiguous figures were primed with picture context, movement, and by presentation of a prior ambiguous figure. We tested two mammal/bird figures to determine if the multiple primes would add or interfere. Picture priming was effective for both figures but diminished with the presentation of a prior ambiguous figure. For the 'swan/squirrel' there was little(More)
The influence of sentence context on the recognition of naturally spoken vowels degraded by reverberation and Gaussian noise was investigated. Target words were paired to have similar consonant sounds but different vowels (e.g., map/mop) and were embedded early in sentences which provided three types of semantic context. Fifty-eight normal-hearing, young(More)