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Compared to adults, relatively little is known about autobiographical memory and the ability to imagine fictitious and future scenarios in school-aged children, despite the importance of these functions for development and subsequent independent living. Even less is understood about the effect of early hippocampal damage on children's memory and imagination(More)
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is thought to produce parkinsonism in humans and other primates through its inhibition of complex I. The recent discovery of mitochondrial complex I deficiency in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson's disease has provided a remarkable link between the idiopathic disease and the action of the(More)
The physiological role of huntingtin and the mechanisms by which the expanded CAG repeat in ITI5 and its polyglutamine stretch in mutant huntingtin induce Huntington's disease (HD) are unknown. Several techniques have now demonstrated abnormal metabolism in HD brain; direct measurement of respiratory chain enzyme activities has shown severe deficiency of(More)
Elevated iron levels, enhanced oxidative damage, and complex I deficiency have been identified in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease patients. To understand the interrelationship of these abnormalities, we analyzed iron levels, ferritin levels, and complex I activity in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson's disease. Total iron levels(More)
The presence of α-synuclein aggregates in the characteristic Lewy body pathology seen in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), together with α-synuclein gene mutations in familial PD, places α-synuclein at the center of PD pathogenesis. Decreased levels of the chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) proteins LAMP-2A and hsc70 in PD brain samples suggests(More)
Confabulation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been the subject of limited investigation. When studied, the phenomenon has been found to share characteristics with memory distortions produced by neurologically intact individuals. Previous studies that have investigated confabulation in AD have failed to take into account the characteristics of the disease(More)
The precise relationship of the complex I deficiency in PD to the dopaminergic cell death and aetiology of this disorder is as yet unknown. However, evidence is accruing that this mitochondrial defect may play a central role in the cascade of events that terminates in nigral neuronal loss. Further work needs to be carried out to determine the molecular(More)
Huntington's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by an abnormally expanded (>36) CAG repeat within the ITI5 gene encoding a widely expressed 349-kd protein, huntingtin. The medium spiny neurons of the caudate preferentially degenerate in Huntington's disease, with the presence of neuronal intranuclear inclusions. Excitotoxicity is(More)
Brain tissue from normal individuals with incidental Lewy bodies and cell loss in pigmented substantia nigra neurons (asymptomatic Parkinson's disease) and age-matched control subjects without nigral Lewy bodies was examined biochemically. There was no difference in dopamine levels or dopamine turnover in the caudate and putamen of individuals with(More)