Janine Ezendam

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Lactic acid bacteria are claimed to have immunomodulating effects. Stimulation as well as suppression of T helper (Th)1 mediated immune responses, have been described for various strains. Experiments involving Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) detected mainly enhancement of innate immune responses and promotion of Th1 mediated immune reactivity. To confirm(More)
The hazard assessment of skin sensitizers relies mainly on animal testing, but much progress is made in the development, validation and regulatory acceptance and implementation of non-animal predictive approaches. In this review, we provide an update on the available computational tools and animal-free test methods for the prediction of skin sensitization(More)
Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a persistent environmental pollutant with toxic effects in man and rat. Reported adverse effects are hepatic porphyria, neurotoxicity, and adverse effects on the reproductive and immune system. To obtain more insight into HCB-induced mechanisms of toxicity, we studied gene expression levels using DNA microarrays. For 4 weeks,(More)
Integrated testing strategies (ITS), as opposed to single definitive tests or fixed batteries of tests, are expected to efficiently combine different information sources in a quantifiable fashion to satisfy an information need, in this case for regulatory safety assessments. With increasing awareness of the limitations of each individual tool and the(More)
Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a hypersensitivity immune response induced by small protein-reactive chemicals. Currently, the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) provides hazard identification and quantitative estimation of sensitizing potency. Given the complexity of ACD, a single alternative method cannot replace the LLNA, but it is necessary to(More)
There are currently no validated animal models that can identify low molecular weight (LMW) respiratory sensitizers. The Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) is a validated animal model developed to detect contact sensitizers using skin exposure, but all LMW respiratory sensitizers tested so far were also positive in this assay. Discrimination between contact and(More)
Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a persistent environmental pollutant with (auto)immune effects in humans and rats. The Brown Norway (BN) rat is very susceptible to HCB-induced immunopathology, and oral exposure causes inflammatory skin and lung lesions, splenomegaly, lymph node (LN) enlargement, and increased serum levels of IgE and anti-ssDNA IgM. The role of T(More)
Double labelling can serve as a useful tool for providing information about cell kinetics in normal and hyperproliferative tissues in general, and skin in particular. We have developed a double-labelling method that combines immunohistochemistry using the monoclonal antibody MIB1 and non-isotopic in situ hybridization using either a digoxigenin-labelled RNA(More)
The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is the preferred method for classification of sensitizers within REACH. To reduce the number of mice for the identification of sensitizers the reduced LLNA was proposed, which uses only the high dose group of the LLNA. To evaluate the performance of this method for classification, LLNA data from REACH registrations were(More)
New techniques are needed to broaden the understanding of the food allergic response. The capacity of peanut extract to influence gene expression profiles was investigated in a Brown Norway rat model for food allergy. Brown Norway rats were sensitized to peanut extract (0, 1 and 10 mg/rat/d) by daily oral gavage and were dissected after 3, 7 or 14 days of(More)