Janine Askins

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Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) act as sentinels of the innate immune system, sensing a variety of ligands from lipopolysaccharide to flagellin to dsRNA through their ligand-binding domain that is composed of leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). Ligand binding initiates a signaling cascade that(More)
Pathogen recognition by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) initiates innate immune responses that are essential for inhibiting pathogen dissemination and for the development of acquired immunity. The TLRs recognize pathogens with their N-terminal ectodomains (ECD), but the molecular basis for this recognition is not known. Recently we reported the x-ray structure(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) initiate immune responses by recognizing pathogen-associated molecules, but the molecular basis for recognition is poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear how receptor-ligand interactions lead to the initiation of downstream signaling. Here, we describe the mechanism by which TLR3 recognizes its ligand, double-stranded RNA(More)
Milrinone is a promising new inotrope, but its arrhythmogenic potential has not been defined. We monitored ventricular arrhythmias during a 24-hour baseline and 48-hour milrinone infusion period in 12 patients with chronic heart failure. Patients were characterized by a mean age of 58 years and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 21%. Nine (75%) were(More)
Anthrax is caused by the gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. The anthrax toxin consists of three proteins, protective antigen (PA), lethal factor, and edema factor. Current vaccines against anthrax use PA as their primary component since it confers protective immunity. In this work, we expressed soluble, recombinant PA in relatively(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs), type I integral membrane receptors, recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). PAMP recognition occurs via the N-terminal ectodomain (ECD) which initiates an inflammatory response that is mediated by the C-terminal cytosolic signaling domain. To understand the molecular basis of PAMP recognition, we have begun to(More)
The clinical effects of intravenous streptokinase in patients with acute myocardial infarction were compared with those of intracoronary streptokinase in a randomized, prospective study. Comparisons were also made with a historical control group. Fifty patients were entered into the study at 2.4 +/- 1.2 hr after onset of pain, and 27 were assigned to(More)
Sotalol is a unique beta-adrenergic blocking agent with additional actions characteristic of Vaughn-Williams class III antiarrhythmic agents in experimental models. To test the efficacy of sotalol to suppress ventricular arrhythmias, a 6 week parallel, placebo-controlled out-patient study of two doses (320 and 640 mg/day, in two divided doses) was performed(More)
Intoxication of mammalian cells by Bacillus anthracis requires the coordinate activity of three distinct bacterial proteins: protective antigen (PA), edema factor (EF), and lethal factor (LF). Among these proteins, PA has become the major focus of work on monoclonal antibodies and vaccines designed to treat or prevent anthrax infection since neither EF nor(More)
The safety of coronary bypass operations after coronary reperfusion with streptokinase for acute myocardial infarction is not well documented. Therefore we studied 23 consecutive patients (mean age, 59.5 years; 22 men) undergoing bypass operations a median of 5 days (range, 1 to 23 days) after thrombolysis (streptokinase). The control group consisted of 169(More)