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OBJECTIVE To compare vision therapy/orthoptics, pencil push-ups, and placebo vision therapy/orthoptics as treatments for symptomatic convergence insufficiency in children 9 to 18 years of age. METHODS In a randomized, multicenter clinical trial, 47 children 9 to 18 years of age with symptomatic convergence insufficiency were randomly assigned to receive(More)
PURPOSE : The purpose of this article is to compare vision therapy/orthoptics, pencil pushups, and placebo vision therapy/orthoptics as treatments for symptomatic convergence insufficiency in adults 19 to 30 years of age. METHODS : In a randomized, multicenter clinical trial, 46 adults 19 to 30 years of age with symptomatic convergence insufficiency were(More)
PURPOSE To characterize how the mechanisms that produce unilateral form-deprivation amblyopia integrate the effects of normal and abnormal vision over time, the effects of brief daily periods of unrestricted vision on the spatial vision losses produced by monocular form deprivation were investigated in infant monkeys. METHODS Beginning at 3 weeks of age,(More)
People with central field defects resulting from age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) read very slowly. In this study, oral reading rates were determined for unrelated sequences of words in samples of normal young and old subjects with simulated central scotomata of 2 degrees, 4 degrees, and 8 degrees. Scotomata were stabilized at the fovea of the right(More)
To determine if monkeys exhibit clinical suppression in response to early abnormal binocular vision, we compared dichoptic to monocular luminance increment thresholds in monkeys reared with alternating monocular defocus or optically induced strabismus. In the absence of amblyopia, clinical suppression was associated with strabismus and with as little as(More)
PURPOSE In normal vision, stereoscopic cues are combined with perspective cues to provide veridical depth perception. The relative strengths of these depth cues, however, may be dependent upon context effects. We investigated the role of stimulus context on the interactions of binocular disparity, contrast, and size. METHODS The subjects, four observers(More)
Experiencing daily brief periods of unrestricted vision during early monocular form deprivation prevents or reduces the degree of resulting amblyopia. To gain insight into the neural basis for these "protective" effects, we analyzed the monocular and binocular response properties of individual neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) of macaque monkeys(More)
To study the binocular vision deficits associated with anisometropia, monkeys were reared with alternating monocular defocus, which allowed monocular mechanisms to develop normally while binocular mechanisms were selectively compromised. A defocusing contact lens of -1.5 D, -3 D, or -6 D was worn on alternate eyes on successive days (n = 3 per lens power)(More)
Experiencing different quality images in the two eyes soon after birth can cause amblyopia, a developmental vision disorder. Amblyopic humans show the reduced capacity for judging the relative position of a visual target in reference to nearby stimulus elements (position uncertainty) and often experience visual image distortion. Although abnormal pooling of(More)
Experiencing binocularly conflicting signals early in life dramatically alters the binocular responses of cortical neurons. Because visual cortex is highly plastic during a critical period of development, cortical deficits resulting from early abnormal visual experience often mirror the nature of interocular decorrelation of neural signals from the two(More)