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About 20% of astronauts suffer postspaceflight presyncope. We studied pre- to postflight (5- to 16-day missions) cardiovascular responses to standing in 35 astronauts to determine differences between 1) men and women and 2) presyncopal and nonpresyncopal groups. The groups were presyncopal women, presyncopal men, and nonpresyncopal men based on their(More)
Although all astronauts experience symptoms of orthostatic intolerance after short-duration spaceflight, only approximately 20% actually experience presyncope during upright posture on landing day. The presyncopal group is characterized by low vascular resistance before and after flight and low norepinephrine release during orthostatic stress on landing(More)
INTRODUCTION All astronauts experience some degree of orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight, ranging from tachycardia to orthostatic hypotension and syncope. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of two compression garments, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's inflatable antigravity suit (AGS) and the Russian Federal(More)
INTRODUCTION Orthostatic hypotension is a serious risk for crewmembers returning from spaceflight. Numerous cardiovascular mechanisms have been proposed to account for this problem, including vascular and cardiac dysfunction, which we studied during bed rest. METHODS Thirteen subjects were studied before and during bed rest. Statistical analysis was(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to determine the effects of spaceflight duration on immune cells and their relationship to catecholamine levels. METHODS Eleven astronauts who flew aboard five different US Space Shuttle flights ranging in duration from 4 to 16 days were studied before launch and after landing. RESULTS Consistent with prior(More)
Microgravity (microG)-induced orthostatic intolerance (OI) in astronauts is characterized by a marked decrease in cardiac output (CO) in response to an orthostatic stress. Since CO is highly dependent on venous return, alterations in the resistance to venous return (RVR) may be important in contributing to OI. The RVR is directly dependent on arterial(More)
INTRODUCTION Spaceflight has profound effects on the human body. Many of these effects can be induced with head-down bed rest, which has been a useful ground-based analog. With limited resources aboard the International Space Station for human research, the bed rest analog will be a primary platform on which countermeasures will be developed and tested for(More)
OBJECTIVE The incidence of postflight orthostatic intolerance after short-duration spaceflight is about 20%. However, the incidence after long-duration spaceflight was unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that orthostatic intolerance is more severe after long-duration than after short-duration flight. METHODS We performed tilt(More)
Head-down bed rest changes the values of many cardiovascular and endocrine variables and also elicits significant hypovolemia. Because previous studies had not controlled for hypovolemia, it is unknown whether the reported changes were primary effects of bed rest or secondary effects of bed rest-induced hypovolemia. We hypothesized that restoring plasma(More)
This minireview provides an overview of known and potential gender differences in physiological responses to spaceflight. The paper covers cardiovascular and exercise physiology, barophysiology and decompression sickness, renal stone risk, immunology, neurovestibular and sensorimotor function, nutrition, pharmacotherapeutics, and reproduction. Potential(More)