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The form of Darwinian selection has important ecological and management implications. Negative effects of harvesting are often ascribed to size truncation (i.e. strictly directional selection against large individuals) and resultant decrease in trait variability, which depresses capacity to buffer environmental change, hinders evolutionary rebound and(More)
Both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA mutations can cause energy generation disorders. Respiratory chain complex I deficiency is the most common energy generation disorder and a frequent cause of infantile mitochondrial encephalopathies such as Leigh's disease and lethal infantile mitochondrial disease. Most such cases have been assumed to be caused by nuclear(More)
BACKGROUND Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is the disorder thought most to justify neonatal screening by tandem-mass spectrometry because, without screening, there seems to be substantial morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to assess the overall effectiveness of neonatal screening for MCAD deficiency in Australia. METHODS We(More)
Selection can alter predator-prey interactions. However, whether and how complex food-webs respond to selection remain largely unknown. We show in the field that antagonistic selection from predators and pathogens on prey body-size can be a primary driver of food-web functioning. In Windermere, U.K., pike (Esox lucius, the predator) selected against small(More)
Sperm samples from a carefully matched group of 43 cigarette smokers and 43 non-smokers attending an infertility clinic were examined for morphological abnormality. The smokers were found to have a significantly greater percentage of abnormal forms. In the light of other work showing increased chromosome damage in blood lymphocytes of cigarette smokers and(More)
Anthropogenic factors, including climate warming, are increasing the incidence and prevalence of infectious diseases worldwide. Infectious diseases caused by pathogenic parasites can have severe impacts on host survival, thereby altering the selection regime and inducing evolutionary responses in their hosts. Knowledge about such evolutionary consequences(More)
INTRODUCTION Strategies to prevent adult chronic diseases, including obesity, must start in childhood. Because many preschool-aged children spend mealtimes in child care facilities, staff should be taught supportive feeding practices for childhood obesity prevention. Higher obesity rates among low-income children suggest that centers providing care to these(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore the verbal communication of child care providers regarding preschool children's internal and non-internal hunger and satiation cues. METHODS Video observation transcripts of Head Start staff (n=29) at licensed child care centers in Colorado, Idaho, and Nevada were analyzed for common themes. RESULTS Adults' verbal communication with(More)