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BACKGROUND Early emerging characteristics of visual orienting have been associated with a wide range of typical and atypical developmental outcomes. In the current study, we examined the development of visual disengagement in infants at risk for autism. METHODS We measured the efficiency of disengaging from a central visual stimulus to orient to a(More)
OBJECTIVES To describe the prevalence of and risk factors for chronic fatigue in a developing country; in particular, to determine the association of anaemia, mental health, and gender disadvantage factors with chronic fatigue. DESIGN Community survey. SETTING Primary health centre catchment area in Goa, India. PARTICIPANTS 3000 randomly sampled women(More)
Little is known about how spontaneous attentional deployment differs on a millisecond-level scale in the early development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We measured fine-grained eye movement patterns in 6-to 9-month-old infants at high or low familial risk (HR/LR) of ASD while they viewed static images. We observed shorter fixation durations (i.e. the(More)
OBJECTIVE This study is to identify predictors of loss to follow-up among adults with head injury. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING A prospective cohort of 1,857 adults enrolled in the Medical Research Council (MRC) CRASH trial known to be alive 2 weeks after head injury. Six-month follow-up was defined as "overdue" if over 6 months late. Patient information(More)
MRC CRASH is a randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN74459797) of the effect of corticosteroids on death and disability after head injury. We randomly allocated 10,008 adults with head injury and a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 14 or less, within 8 h of injury, to a 48-h infusion of corticosteroid (methylprednisolone) or placebo. Data at 6 months were obtained(More)
BACKGROUND Gender disadvantage and reproductive health are major determinants of women's health in developing countries. OBJECTIVE To determine the association of factors indicative of gender disadvantage and reproductive health with the risk of common mental disorders (CMDs) in women. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey from November 1, 2001, to June 15,(More)
BACKGROUND Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. The burden of TBI is greatest in low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC), yet little is known about patient outcomes in these settings. METHODS Complete data on 8927 patients from 46 countries from the corticosteroid randomization after significant(More)
In addition to core symptoms, i.e., social interaction and communication difficulties and restricted and repetitive behaviors, autism is also characterized by aspects of superior perception. One well-replicated finding is that of superior performance in visual search tasks, in which participants have to indicate the presence of an odd-one-out element among(More)
OBJECTIVE The aims of this study were to develop models of personality change after traumatic brain injury (TBI) based on information provided by the TBI survivor and a significant other (SO), and to compare the models generated from the two different sources of information. METHODS Individuals with and without TBI and an SO were interviewed separately(More)
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