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Wound healing is a complex physiological process comprised of discrete but inter-related and overlapping stages, requiring exact timing and regulation to successfully progress, yet occurs spontaneously in response to injury. It is characterised by four phases, coagulation, inflammation, proliferation and remodelling. Each phase is predominated by particular(More)
OBJECTIVE Managing critical limb ischemia (CLI) is challenging. Furthermore, ischemic myopathy prevents good functional outcome after revascularization. Hence, we have focused on limiting the tissue damage rather than angiogenesis, which has traditionally been the motivation to develop nonsurgical treatments for CLI. Erythropoietin (EPO) protects ischemic(More)
BACKGROUND The technique of harvesting the saphenous vein for coronary artery bypass grafting influences the fate of vein grafts. The patency rate of a novel "no-touch" technique in which the vein is harvested with a pedicle of surrounding tissue and not distended was compared with two other techniques. METHODS One hundred fifty-six patients who underwent(More)
OBJECTIVE The use of the saphenous vein in coronary artery bypass graft surgery is associated with high 1-year occlusion rates of as much as 30%. A new "no-touch" technique of saphenous vein harvesting in which the vein is harvested with a pedicle of surrounding tissue and not distended may result in improved early patency rates. We hypothesize that nitric(More)
Poor healing of DFUs (diabetic foot ulcers) is a major clinical problem that can be extremely debilitating and lead to lower limb amputation. In the normal acute wound, the Cx43 (connexin 43) gap junction protein is down-regulated at the wound edge as a precursor to cell migration and healing. In fibroblasts from the human chronic DFU wound edge there was a(More)
PURPOSE Critical leg ischemia (CLI) is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Therapeutic angiogenesis is still being investigated as a possible alternative treatment option for CLI. CXCL12, a chemokine, is known to have two spliced variants, CXCL12alpha and CXCL12beta, but the significance remains unknown. The study investigated the angiogenic(More)
Cardiovascular disease is a complex disorder involving multiple pathophysiological processes, several of which involve activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) of the innate immune system. As sentinels of innate immunity TLRs are nonclonally germline-encoded molecular pattern recognition receptors that recognize exogenous as well as tissue-derived molecular(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLR) are key pattern recognition receptors in the innate immune system. The TLR-mediated immune response against pathogens is usually protective however inappropriate TLR activation may lead to excessive tissue damage. It is well recognised that TLRs respond to a variety of endogenous as well as exogenous ligands. By responding to(More)
Despite early identification and aggressive modification of atherosclerotic risk factors, many patients still require surgical revascularisation for established atherosclerotic vascular disease. However, bypass surgery is hampered by a high incidence of vein graft failure. New strategies are being introduced to improve these results, with early data(More)