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The therapeutic potential of placental growth factor (PlGF) and its receptor Flt1 in angiogenesis is poorly understood. Here, we report that PlGF stimulated angiogenesis and collateral growth in ischemic heart and limb with at least a comparable efficiency to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). An antibody against Flt1 suppressed neovascularization(More)
Angiogenesis has an essential role in many important pathological and physiological settings. It has been shown that vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (VPF/VEGF), a potent cytokine expressed by most malignant tumors, has critical roles in vasculogenesis and both physiological and pathological angiogenesis. We report here that(More)
This Chapter has reviewed the literature concerning VPF/VEGF as a potent vascular permeabilizing cytokine. In accord with this important role, microvessels have been found to be hyperpermeable to plasma proteins and other circulating macromolecules at sites where VPF/VEGF and its receptors are overexpressed, i.e., in tumors, healing wounds, retinopathies,(More)
Here, we report an intrinsic property of gold nanoparticles (nanogold): they can interact selectively with heparin-binding glycoproteins and inhibit their activity. Gold nanoparticles specifically bound vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (VPF/VEGF)-165 and basic fibroblast growth factor, two endothelial cell mitogens and(More)
Vascular permeability factor (VPF), also known as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is a multifunctional cytokine expressed and secreted at high levels by many tumor cells of animal and human origin. As secreted by tumor cells, VPF/VEGF is a 34–42 kDa heparin-binding, dimeric, disulfide-bonded glycoprotein that acts directly on endothelial cells(More)
Expression of vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (VPF/VEGF) is markedly increased in the epidermis of lesional psoriatic skin and in healing skin wounds. In this study, we characterized the effects of several cytokines and growth factors on the expression and secretion of VPF/VEGF mRNA and protein by cultured human epidermal(More)
The tumor microvasculature is hyperpermeable to plasma proteins, but the specific vessels that leak have not been identified. To investigate this question, the extravasation of circulating tracers of varying size was studied by fluorescence, light, and electron microscopy in animals bearing solid transplantable carcinomas. In all five tumors studied, 70 and(More)
VPF/VEGF is a multifunctional cytokine that contributes to angiogenesis by both direct and indirect mechanisms. On the one hand, VPF/VEGF stimulates the endothelial cells lining nearby microvessels to proliferate, to migrate and to alter their pattern of gene expression. On the other hand, VPF/VEGF renders these same microvascular endothelial cells(More)
Circulating leukocytes are thought to extravasate from venules through open interendothelial junctions. To test this paradigm, we injected N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) intradermally in guinea pigs, harvesting tissue at 5-60 min. At FMLP-injected sites, venular endothelium developed increased surface wrinkling and variation in thickness.(More)
Vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (VPF/VEGF) is an angiogenic cytokine with potential for the treatment of tissue ischemia. To investigate the properties of the new blood vessels induced by VPF/VEGF, we injected an adenoviral vector engineered to express murine VPF/VEGF164 into several normal tissues of adult nude mice or rats.(More)