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l-Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) exists as both membrane-associated and soluble forms in the mammalian brain. Here, we propose that there is a functional and structural coupling between the synthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by membrane-associated GAD and its packaging into synaptic vesicles (SVs) by vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT). This(More)
BACKGROUND Taurine is a free amino acid present in high concentrations in a variety of organs of mammalians. As an antioxidant, taurine has been found to protect cells against oxidative stress, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. METHODS In this report, we present evidence to support the conclusion that taurine exerts a protective function(More)
Previously, we reported that protein phosphorylation plays an important role in regulating soluble l-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) [Bao, J. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 6464-6467] and membrane-associated GAD activity [Hsu, C. C. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 24366-24371]. Here, we report the effect of phosphorylation on the two well-defined GAD isoforms,(More)
This review focuses on the recent advances that were made in understanding the fundamental mechanisms of the regulation of l-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD; E.C. 4.1.1.15), the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA). In the brain, there are two isoforms of GAD- GAD67 and GAD65, where(More)
In the present era, investigators seek to find therapeutic interventions that are multifaceted in their mode of action. Such targets provide the most advantageous routes for addressing the multiplicity of pathophysiological avenues that lead to neuronal dysfunction and death observed in neurological disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Taurine, an(More)
Ischemic stroke exhibits a multiplicity of pathophysiological mechanisms. To address the diverse pathophysiological mechanisms observed in ischemic stroke investigators seek to find therapeutic strategies that are multifaceted in their action by either investigating multipotential compounds or by using a combination of compounds. Taurine, an endogenous(More)
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. GABA is converted from glutamic acid by the action of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). There are two forms of GAD in the brain, GAD65 and GAD67, referring to a molecular weight of 65 and 67 kDa, respectively. Perturbations in GABAergic(More)
The effects of taurine in the mammalian nervous system are numerous and varied. There has been great difficulty in determining the specific targets of taurine action. The authors present a review of accepted taurine action and highlight recent discoveries regarding taurine and calcium homeostasis in neurons. In general there is a consensus that taurine is a(More)
Previously, it has been shown that taurine exerts its protective function against glutamate-induced neuronal excitotoxicity through its action in reducing glutamate-induced elevation of intracellular free calcium, [Ca2+]i. Here, we report the mechanism underlying the effect of taurine in reducing [Ca2+]i. We found that taurine inhibited glutamate-induced(More)
Taurine demonstrates multiple cellular functions including a central role as a neurotransmitter, as a trophic factor in CNS development, in maintaining the structural integrity of the membrane, in regulating calcium transport and homeostasis, as an osmolyte, as a neuromodulator and as a neuroprotectant. The neurotransmitter properties of taurine are(More)